What are peptide hormones?
Erythropoietin (EPO) and its analogues, growth hormone (hGH) and its analogues, exogenous drugs (Qomatropin peptide drugs) and endogenous hormone (the body’s natural generated) difference is small, the characteristics of drug metabolism in human body short time, have no accurate and reliable detection method for a long time, widely abused by athletes, is also a hot research focus in the struggle the anti-doping drugs, EPO and hGH is a peptide hormone.
Erythrotropin and its Analogue (EPO) Marion, “World’s fastest woman”, Sydney Olympic Gold and bronze medalist.
Jones, who used EPO, hGH and THG, became the first person in history to be jailed for doping.
Other athletes and groups have been found to have used EPO: seven-time Tour DE France winner Neil Armstrong of the United States; Russian cyclist Petro; and German triathlete Nina Dobrev.
Clapford, 2000 Olympic Women’s triathlon champion McMahon of Switzerland, 400m world champion Gromi Young of USA (banned for life), Juventus Football Club of Italy (1994-1998), etc.
The Chinese team, Winter Games champion Wang Fei, the National Games men’s 10,000m champion Tian Mengxu, China’s race walker Qin Aihua have all been down by the drug.
EPO is a kind of peptide hormone secreted by human kidney, which can increase the amount of bone marrow to generate red blood cells, improve the content of hemoglobin, and increase the oxygen carrying and supplying capacity of blood. It is a kind of medicine in clinical treatment of renal anemia.
EPO is favored by some sports events and athletes because it can significantly improve aerobic exercise time. It has obvious effects on endurance events such as cycling, triathlon, rowing, long-distance swimming, long-distance running and winter events. It is said that the maximum performance can be improved by 15%.
Another reason why EPO is favored by athletes is that the international EPO detection technology is not qualified, and athletes from various countries can basically use EPO freely. However, after 2000, the international EPO detection technology has been gradually improved, and the situation has changed somewhat.
The EPO has been blamed for the deaths of 24 cyclists over the past two decades, including eight in 2003, including former Tour DE France champion Pantani.
This is because EPO increases the number of red blood cells in the blood, making the blood viscous and slow blood flow, causing hypertension, causing tissue hypoxia, accelerating blood coagulation, and even leading to venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism or cerebral infarction, leading to death.
Growth hormone and its Analogues (hGH) hGH is a peptide hormone formed in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and produced most in sleep. Moreover, with the increase of age, the production of hGH decreases gradually.
HGH quickly enters the liver where it is converted into growth vector C, which regulates growth, immunity and metabolism.
HGH can promote growth and development, promote cell division and proliferation of bone, cartilage, muscle and other tissues, increase protein synthesis, and promote bone growth in childhood and adolescence. It is mainly used for the treatment of dwarfism in clinic.
It can also promote anabolism, muscle growth, strengthen the strength of tendons, so that people’s muscles strong, strength increase, to gain competitive advantage, which is why it is used as a stimulant.
Due to its anti-aging effect, hGH is also used in the field of beauty.
There are also huge health risks associated with using such drugs: acromegaly and deformity.
It damages the liver and bones.
There is a high risk of contracting fatal diseases, such as AIDS, and deaths from brain virus infection due to hGH use have been documented.
HGH can inhibit sugar consumption, resulting in hyperglycemia and urine sugar;
It can also reduce insulin sensitivity and cause glucose intolerance. According to foreign reports, 80% of those who overuse hGH suffer from diabetes and need insulin treatment.
Lead to menstrual disorders, decreased sexual desire and impotence.
Many athletes consider hGH to be “safe” because the test is lagging and no hGH positive has been detected so far.
Jones, who was heavily fined for using hGH doping, “confessed” rather than was tested.
DavidHowman, director-general of the world anti-doping agency (WADA), has said: “we know people are taking hGH and they haven’t been punished for 20 years.”
Australian customs seized a large amount of hGH injection in the luggage of an Uzbek coach;
The Italian police also found hGH in the baggage of the Tour DE Italy.