General Anesthesia Is “You Die Once”?

Introduction: Recently, a 27-year-old girl in Foshan, Guangdong Province, died in a hotel due to acute respiratory and circulatory dysfunction caused by sevoflurane poisoning, which has attracted much attention. So what exactly is sevoflurane?
Sevoflurane as a class of gas is an inhaled general anesthetic, and today we’re going to talk about general anesthetics, what happens to the body after the injection, is that what other people say?
It’s like dying once and waking up stupid and demented?

First, what happens to the body after an anesthetic enters the body?
Take a look

Anesthesia is one of the important findings of the 19th century, scientists at that time, always want to relieve the pain of the method, is the most commonly used to anesthesia, anesthesia method, there were great, it means that the patient sticks to knock dizzy, have blood, with the patient of bloodletting method in patients with shock, and opium and alcohol method, let the patient to forget the pain.

Later scientists discovered the drug after one hundred years of development, gradually launched inhalation intravenous and conform to the anesthesia different anesthetic methods, such as when you respiratory inhalation or intravenous static drug, it will lead to brain central nervous, in the human brain nerve will receive the people to get their information, the various parts of the body after consolidation and work out the movement and induction.

Type in simple terms, central nerve is responsible for generating the psychological activities and the animal behavior and actions, and the purpose of anesthesia is to confuse it, let it have no way to control actions, there is no way to get their information, each place perception when animals meet with dangerous things, for example, can choose automatic to avoid, it is a reflex action, and the reflex action is processed by the central nervous.

After the injection of anesthetic will be “confuse” central nervous, there is no way to muscles work in this way, people will slowly disappear from awake to the consciousness, and loss of pain, muscle relaxation, heart rate, blood pressure can have varying degrees of decline, so often inject anesthetic need external help breathing breathing machine, anesthesia, depth of sleep than people sleeping at ordinary times greater depth, surgical operation, the pain will not lead to he woke up, so someone will describe general anesthesia, like a dead after a time, but it is exaggerated.

Because even anesthetic injections, also need the anesthesiologist continuously append the anesthetic, for depth of anesthesia, the test of the level of the anesthesiologist, if less, so central nervous not be overwhelmed, or pain, will happen if you give more, the system will directly strike will die, of course, some people will wake up in the process of from anesthesia, they will feel pain during the operation and suture of asphyxia feeling, and limbs, but there was no way to respond, this is the amount of anesthetic to the consequences.

About 5 percent of people wake up from anesthesia, and the resulting psychological problems can leave them in pain for a lifetime.

Two, after the baby accepts general anesthesia, can become stupid become dementia?
What you want to know, here it is

China, about 800 ~ 9 million babies need to accept the whole body paralysis, short time of anesthesia for the baby’s brain won’t affect, and anesthesia effect is short for human, reversible, recoverable, so don’t be stupid not become dementia, and part of anesthetics can also through the liver may also through the breath.

Anesthetics have short-term amnesia effect, so at the time of anesthesia early injection, often appear short memories forget, is not a name and address, this kind of phenomenon such as long-term memory to forget, so the anesthetic will not lead to a dull boy, of course for the elderly and the poor people, drug metabolism ability, anesthetic will also cause life is affected, but the night it will return to normal in a few months later, it has to do with the level of the anesthesiologist.

After all, brain cells need sufficient nutrients, so if the brain hypoxia, 5 minutes will greatly affect the brain function, but will not affect people’s intelligence, and anesthesiologists are generally professionally trained, and will not cause brain hypoxia caused by mistake injection.

Conclusion: There are a lot of rumors about anesthesia on the Internet, we must distinguish them carefully. Secondly, in order to avoid the tragedy, we must go to the regular hospital when seeking medical treatment.

Is leprosy terrible?

Leprosy can be prevented and treated, not terrible!

Leprosy is one of the three major chronic infectious diseases in the world.

The disease is a chronic contact infectious disease caused by the bacillus leprae and is transmitted mainly through inhalation of respiratory droplets and long-term close skin contact.

After it enters the human body, it will cause the immune balance disorder, produce allergic reaction, cause a series of skin ulceration on the face, eyes, hands and feet, and continue to deepen.
In severe cases, it can lead to a collapsed nose and eyes, ferocious features, and even disfigurement and limb stump, until death.

After catching the disease, the patient’s nervous system is damaged, body sensation gradually disappears, unable to perceive pain.

Although there is currently no “vaccine” against leprosy, the time when it was an “incurable disease” has long passed with the development of science.

In fact, leprosy is preventable and treatable. Early detection and early standardized treatment can lead to complete cure.

  1. How can we prevent leprosy?

There is currently no effective vaccine against leprosy.

Close contact with untreated infectious leprosy patients can reduce the risk of leprosy by wearing masks, washing hands frequently, practicing personal hygiene, strengthening nutrition and improving body resistance.

Leprosy is scary, but more than 95% of people have a normal resistance to Mycobacterium leprosy, and even when infected, the incidence is low.

  1. What are the symptoms of leprosy?

Leprosy has various clinical manifestations and early mainly anodyne to appear on the skin in light color or red rash, such as can’t early detection and timely treatment, the illness after procrastination leads to local skin numbness, dry, don’t sweat, some skin lesions of leprosy patients will not feel hot and cold and pain, serious can appear even eyebrows, eyes, facial deformities and the brotherhood of disabilities, etc.

Leprosy can lead to severe deformity and disability of eyes, face, hands and feet, which is one of the main reasons that leprosy patients have been discriminated against since ancient times. But now, because of medical progress, leprosy has been proved to be curable. Early detection and early treatment can avoid deformity and disability!

  1. Suspect leprosy

Where should I see a doctor?

When skin appear ant line or strange sensation such as heartburn, or such as red and white spotted, papules and plaques, nodules one or more skin lesions, often sweating or sweat, and sensory disorder, should take the initiative to go to check diagnose leprosy medical establishment that decide a dot, or with skin disease prevention and control of local court, standing (), center for disease control and prevention, chronic disease prevention and control of hospital (station), etc. Contact us.

The diagnosis and treatment of leprosy in China is free of charge.
Not treating or delaying treatment for leprosy because of fear of being discriminated against is not only a sacrifice to one’s health and future, but also an irresponsible and dangerous risk to the family and friends around him.

  1. Public awareness of leprosy

What are the misconceptions?

Myth 1: Leprosy is highly contagious, incurable, and extremities sores and disabilities are the inevitable outcome for leprosy sufferers.

After being infected with leprosy bacillus, can come on depends on organism natural immunity, 95% of above people have natural immunity to leprosy bacillus, even if infected with leprosy bacillus, the proportion of coming on is very low.
In addition, leprosy through early detection, early treatment can effectively avoid deformity and disability.

Myth 2: Leprosy is an inherited disease that causes it in the next generation.

Familial clustering of leprosy is the result of close contact with family members for a long time before diagnosis and treatment.
Leprosy specialists report that if a female leper’s newborn baby is separated from her mother, the baby will not get sick.

Myth 3: Leprosy is difficult to diagnose early and cannot be prevented.

There are two main reasons for delayed diagnosis of leprosy, one is the patient’s own delay, and the other is medical delay.
The former is the delay in diagnosis caused by the patient’s lack of attention to their own symptoms or other reasons.
The latter is part of the doctors do not understand the knowledge of leprosy, will not diagnose leprosy, resulting in medical delay.

After the isolated leprosy bacilli, in the summer sun irradiation 2 ~ 3 hours can lose its feculity, in 60℃ treatment for an hour or ultraviolet radiation for two hours, that is, lose its vitality.
It can be killed by boiling, high pressure steam and ultraviolet irradiation.
So develop good hygiene habits, keep indoor sunshine and ventilation, reasonable exercise to enhance physical fitness;
Preventive medication for all high-risk groups can help prevent leprosy.

Leprosy isn’t really terrible,

What’s scary is the way people treat it.

Let’s work together to achieve it

A world free of leprosy!

How does anti-estrogen therapy treat breast Cancer? New research offers an explanation

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in women. Previous studies have shown that estrogen is an important cytokinesis agent for breast cancer, which is mediated by estrogen receptor ER in breast tissue. ER positive has become the basis for anti-estrogen therapy in breast cancer patients.
Other studies have shown that the activation level of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase A (RSK) is positively correlated with the response to estrogen therapy in breast cancer patients, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear.

In a recent study published in the international journal Cancer Research, researchers from Vanderbilt University, USA, using in vitro and in vivo models of multiple ER+ breast cancers, found that ER traps activated RSK2 in the nucleus to promote malignant transformation of cells, facilitating the growth of metastatic tumors.

This study shows that RSK2 activates a transcriptional regulatory network promoting malignant transformation through its N-terminal interaction with ER, which is important for ER+ cells in the breast. This discovery provides a gene expression signature that can help grade a patient’s tumor based on ER level.
The results also showed that ER+ tumor growth was strongly dependent on RSK2 in the nucleus, and transgenic mice with stable expression of RSK2 in the nucleus in breast cells would develop high-grade ductal adenocarcinoma in situ.
Breast cells isolated from the transgenic mouse model and implanted elsewhere in the body can spread and establish metastases.
Anti-estrogen drugs can disrupt the interaction between RSK2 and ER, promoting RSK2 entry into the cytoplasm and affecting tumor formation.

These results suggest that RSK2 is an important participant in ER mediated transcriptional regulation, and this study provides insights into ER+ breast cancer grading and provides a mechanistic explanation for how antiestrogen therapy works.

Can you exercise when you have asthma?

In addition to medication, asthma needs to be treated with other tools such as environmental control and lifestyle regulation to improve symptoms and reduce the risk of attacks.
The GINA Guide 2020 encourages regular, moderate physical activity in asthmatics. Here are some common questions asthmatics ask about exercise.
Is exercise good for people with asthma?
The answer is yes.
Regular moderate physical activity in asthmatics has health benefits, including:
· Reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease
· Improves the quality of life
· It keeps you energized
· Improves immunity
· Maintain a normal weight
It should be noted that regular physical activity does not confer any particular benefit to lung function or asthma symptoms per se, but improvements in cardiopulmonary function may reduce the risk of developing dyspnea.
Meanwhile, obesity is considered a risk factor for asthma, and studies have shown that losing weight can help improve asthma symptoms.
Aerobic exercise and strength training on top of diet control is more effective at reducing weight and controlling asthma symptoms than diet control alone.
Does exercise cause or aggravate asthma?
Although exercise is beneficial to the health of asthmatics, exercise is also an important cause of asthma symptoms.
Because people during strenuous exercise tend to breathe in large amounts of relatively cold, dry air, which causes the bronchial constriction caused by exercise.
Up to 90% of asthmatics may experience exercise-induced bronchial constriction during intense exercise, which is the most common cause of asthma symptoms in adolescents.
Common symptoms of exercise-induced asthma include wheezing, abnormal shortness of breath, chest tightness or coughing, and one or more symptoms may occur.
Therefore, asthmatic patients should choose exercise programs suitable for their physical conditions, choose indoor environment with controllable conditions as far as possible, and avoid exercise in very cold or severely polluted environment, so as to reduce the occurrence of bronchial contraction.
Exercise is also an important cause of asthma symptoms in children.
Children with poor asthma control often refuse to play games or exercise to avoid asthma symptoms. Parents should encourage children to play games or exercise, which is important for their normal social and physical development.
Therefore, it is important for parents to carefully observe their young children’s daily activities, including their willingness to walk and play, to assess their potential asthma diagnosis.
If asthma symptoms develop during exercise, use a “quick-acting bronchodilator” (such as salbutamol) and the symptoms will immediately ease.
If there is no relief, seek medical attention for other possible causes of symptoms.
How to prevent exercise-induced asthma?
The best approach is to ensure that asthma is well controlled. Patients with asthma should use inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on a regular basis. When the right medication is used and prepared in advance, most asthmatics can take appropriate physical activity and many will not be restricted.
To prevent bronchoconstriction due to exercise, a good warm-up exercise may be performed prior to exercise, with inhaled salbutamol or budesonidoterol if necessary.
What sports are suitable for asthmatic patients?
There is not enough evidence to suggest which form of exercise is better for people with asthma.
Asthma sufferers can engage in low-intensity, rhythmic aerobic exercise such as walking, jogging, tai chi, swimming and cycling to exercise their breathing and heart function at different intensities.
For example, when you warm up by jogging, jog at an increased intensity for a few minutes, lower the intensity for a few minutes, and then increase it again.
Indoor swimming is also a good exercise because the temperature and humidity in the environment are controllable. Asthmatics can try aerobic exercise by increasing and decreasing their swimming speed. However, exposure to the disinfectants chlorine and trichloramine during swimming may also induce asthma.
It’s important to note that whatever you do, make sure to warm up first, which will reduce the chance of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.
What’s more, the most important thing is that patients are interested in the exercise they do and can stick to it!
How intense can exercise be?
The amount of exercise should not be too large at one time. It is recommended to do it gradually. The intensity of exercise should be based on feeling good after each exercise and should not be exhausted.
If asthma symptoms occur frequently during an intense exercise program, this may indicate insufficient medication use or that the patient’s asthma symptoms are not suitable for such intense exercise, and you need to talk to your doctor about adjusting your treatment or taking preventive measures.
Do you have to stop jogging if you often feel unwell?
Not necessarily!
Usually, just getting ready for jogging can improve: First, use bronchodilators like salbutamol about 15 minutes before you start.
Second, warm up properly before going all out for a jog.
Symptoms of asthma develop during exercise
What to do?
Asthmatics should make sure they always have bronchodilators with them and use them immediately if they develop symptoms of asthma during exercise.
If asthma symptoms occur frequently during exercise, seek medical attention and have your doctor choose a more appropriate medication or avoid a specific type of exercise.
When athletes take asthma medication
Can I take part in the competition?
Most commonly prescribed asthma medications are permitted in competitive sports.
In general, inhaled corticosteroids and some bronchodilators are permitted, but corticosteroid tablets, syrups, suppositories, or injections are prohibited.
Athletes with asthma need to consult a doctor or national sports association, especially in international competitions, to ensure that the drugs used do not violate doping regulations.
Athletes need to be certified by a doctor to use asthma medication under certain circumstances.
All in all, people with asthma need to find an exercise program that suits them and interests them, and stick to it for a long time.
Remember to warm up properly before exercise, and have bronchodilators handy!

How do viruses assemble in cells? Scientists reverse engineer a slow down version of rotavirus

Rotavirus is one of the main pathogens causing diarrhea in infants and young children. It mainly infects small intestinal epithelial cells, causing cell damage and diarrhea, causing the death of 130,000 infants and children under 5 years old every year.
It is the single leading cause of diarrhea in infants and young children, and nearly every child around the world has been infected with rotavirus at least once.

Viroplasms have been difficult to study because they usually form very quickly, but a chance observation led researchers at Baylor College of Medicine to discover new insights into viral plasmid formation.

The researchers created a mutated rotavirus that replicates unexpectedly much more slowly than the original virus, allowing them to observe the first step in virus assembly.

The findings, published in the Journal of Virology, open new possibilities for treating and preventing the viral disease and understanding how similar factories for other viruses work.

“Virulence formation is essential for successful rotavirus infection.
They quickly formed in infected cells, is composed of virus and cell protein, and interaction with lipid drops, but the details of how these ingredients are combined together are still unclear, “lead author Jeanette m. Criglar said, she is a former postdoctoral interns, now the department of molecular virology and microbiology baylor Mary laboratory scientist Dr Estes.

Lipid droplet is a complex and active multifunctional organelle, whose basic functions are mainly involved in lipid synthesis and storage. Lipid droplet related proteins are involved in a variety of lipid related biological processes, including cell signal transduction, lipid metabolism regulation, membrane transport, and the synthesis and secretion of inflammation-related proteins.

Many pathogens, including viruses, intracellular bacteria, and protists, target lipid droplets.
Pathogenic microorganisms can induce the increase of intracellular lipid droplets which in turn provide a platform for the proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms.

To shed new light on viral plasmid formation, Criglar and her colleagues studied NSP2, a viral protein essential for virus replication.
Without it, neither virulence nor new viruses can form.

Like all proteins, NSP2 is made up of amino acids that are strung together like beads on a necklace.
Bead’ 313 is serine.
And importantly, ser313 is phosphorylated — it has a phosphate group attached to it.

Protein phosphorylation is a mechanism by which cells regulate protein activity.
It works like a switch that activates or deactivates proteins.

Here, the role of NSP2 phosphorylation of serine 313 in virion formation was assessed.

Using a recently developed reverse genetics system, Criglar and her colleagues created a rotavirus with an NSP2 protein by converting serine to aspartic acid. The virus has a mutation of 313 amino acids, called a phosphate-like mutation.

The phosphoprotein name suggests that the mutant protein mimics the phosphorylated protein in the original rotavirus.

Reverse genetics starts with a protein, works backwards, makes a mutated gene, and then makes it part of a virus to study how the protein affects the behaviour of the virus.

“In laboratory experiments, our phospho-like mutant protein crystallizes faster than the original protein, not in days but in hours,” Criglar says.

“But surprisingly, compared to non-mutated rotaviruses, the phosphoviruses produce virions and replicate very slowly.”

“This is not what we expected.
We think the rotavirus with the mutant protein will also replicate faster.”

“We took advantage of the delay in viral plasmid formation to look at early events that are difficult to study.”

The first step in virality formation, the researchers found, was the binding of NSP2 to the lipid droplet, suggesting that NSP2 phosphorylated only at 313 can interact with the lipid droplet and not with other components of the virion.

Lipid droplets are an important component of viral virulence.
Rotavirus is known to trick infected cells into producing fat droplets, but how it does so is unclear.

New findings suggest that rotavirus may use phosphorylated NSP2 to trigger lipid droplet formation.

“It is very exciting to see that changing just one amino acid in the NSP2 protein affects the replication of the entire virus,” Criglar said.

“This phosphorous change changes the dynamics of virus replication without killing the virus.
We can use this mutated rotavirus to continue to study the sequence of events that lead to viral plasmid formation, including a long-standing question in cell biology about how lipid droplets form.”

Who applauds Oxford’s discovery that coVID-19 treatment with new World steroid hormones reduces severe death

The World Health Organization (WHO) on Tuesday (16 June) described the UK’s use of a basic steroid to treat critically ill patients with COVID-19 as a “life-saving scientific breakthrough”.
About a third of those with severe illness survive.

The Oxford study was funded by state and private donors, including the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

“This is good news and I congratulate the UK government, Oxford University and the many hospitals and patients in the UK who have contributed to this life-saving scientific breakthrough,” the WHO director-general said, according to AFP, the Associated Press and Reuters.

Researchers at Oxford University treated more than 2,000 people with severe COVID-19 with the steroid dexamethasone.

Dexamethasone was found to reduce death rates by 35 per cent in patients who had to be put on a ventilator.
Preliminary results have also shown that it can reduce the mortality rate of patients who need oxygen treatment without ventilator from 25% to 20%.

Peter Horby, professor of emerging infectious diseases at Oxford University’s Nuffield Department of Medicine, said: “Dexamethasone is the first drug to be shown to improve coVID-19 survival…
This is a very encouraging result.”

“Dexamethasone is cheap and ready to be used immediately to save lives around the world,” he said.
But he also stressed that the drug would not help with mild symptoms, and would only help patients hospitalized with the virus.

Health Secretary Matt Hancock said patients in the UK would begin receiving the drug immediately and thanked the Oxford scientists.

Take antihypertensive medicine every day, why still can appear hypertensive nephrosis?

At the outpatient clinic last month, 41-year-old Xiao Li, who was a buyer at a company, came to me. Xiao Li found that his blood pressure had risen for 3 years, but he was the first time to see a doctor.

3 years ago, when Xiao Li passed the pharmacy, he saw that it was measuring blood pressure for free, so he went in and measured his blood pressure once, and found that the blood pressure was actually 160/110mmHg. He buys medicine, or the sphygmomanometer is bad. Xiao Li, who has traveled for many years, thinks that it must be a routine…

However, this matter always left a shadow in my heart, and I remember it from time to time. So after a month, Xiao Li measured the blood pressure several times in different places, and took the colleagues’ electronic blood pressure to measure it again, and found that each time the blood pressure was still so high.

He was a little flustered now, because he had heard that high blood pressure could be dangerous, so he asked his friends around him what to do? Can diet or physical therapy lower blood pressure?

Many friends nearby thought the same, and advised him not to take medicine so young. Of course, there are a few friends who say they should take some medicine, but it is recommended not to take good antihypertensive medicine, otherwise there may be no medicine available in the future, which is bad, and you have to leave some room for yourself when you are young. #甫谣#

Xiao Li sounded very reasonable, yeah, he was still so young, in case there is no medicine available in the future, then it is sad.

After consulting a lot of people, he made up his mind. After get off work, he found a pharmacy and asked the clerk to take one of the cheapest antihypertensive drugs “captopril”. This medicine was recommended by a colleague.

After the medicine was bought back, Xiao Li found that the instructions stated that he should eat 2-3 times a day, but he thought about it, as the saying goes: “It is a drug that is three-point poisoning”, and he has just started to develop high blood pressure, which can be less Eat less, so he decided to take only one capsule a day to maintain a basic level of blood pressure.

After taking antihypertensive drugs, he felt his heart and felt that everything was all right: high blood pressure, antihypertensive drugs, blood pressure will definitely come down, don’t worry about it.

The buyer’s work is indeed very busy, and there are a lot of entertainment and drinking. Although I insist on taking a captopril one antihypertensive drug every day, I have rarely had time to take blood pressure in the past few years. Because I don’t feel uncomfortable and don’t care too much, I feel comfortable: I should be too tired, just take a break.

However, last week the company went to the hospital for physical examination, and when Xiao Li measured his blood pressure, he found that the blood pressure was higher: 176/120mmHg, and a large amount of proteinuria had appeared in the urine test. The electrocardiogram showed that the heart had also enlarged.

He was very depressed and puzzled: He was taking antihypertensive drugs every day, why can’t he control his blood pressure?

In fact, Xiao Li entered the misunderstanding from the beginning, there are six major errors:

  1. First, what we usually say about good antihypertensive drugs refers not to expensive drugs, but to long-acting antihypertensive drugs, which can lower blood pressure smoothly for 24 hours, and the side effects are relatively small, and at the same time on the heart, kidneys, etc. Target organs have a certain protective effect. In other words, you can kill two birds with one stone.

In fact, many long-acting antihypertensive drugs are also very cheap. Many imported antihypertensive drugs now have domestic generic drugs, and they are very cheap through the national platform. They will not increase the financial burden of patients.
Short-acting antihypertensive drugs, such as captopril, heartache, etc., cannot maintain blood pressure stable for 24 hours and are prone to blood pressure fluctuations, so they are rarely used clinically.

  1. Antihypertensive drugs are different from antibiotics and will not produce drug resistance. The so-called “take poor drugs at first, and then take good drugs later” has no reason and no scientific basis. Many people think that poor antihypertensive drugs are actually old drugs decades ago, and many of them are short-acting or have more side effects and are not routinely recommended.

Of course, if there is no other antihypertensive drug, it can be used, but it must be taken according to the instructions of the doctor. If possible, we still recommend the use of long-acting antihypertensive drugs with good side effects and protection of target organs.

  1. Isn’t blood pressure monitored after taking antihypertensive drugs? This is of course wrong.

We often encounter this situation in the clinic. Many patients find that blood pressure rises very worried, but after taking antihypertensive drugs, they immediately feel safe and no longer monitor blood pressure. In fact, people’s blood pressure often fluctuates at different times and in different environments. Taking medicine does not mean that it can be controlled and stabilized. Even if the blood pressure is stabilized by using medicine, there may be fluctuations, such as weather changes or cold, cold, etc. Other conditions may cause blood pressure fluctuations.

If blood pressure is not controlled at a normal level, the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular accidents (such as myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmia, etc.) remains high.

Xinlu Xingchen: Therefore, it is very important to monitor blood pressure after taking the medicine. We recommend family self-testing blood pressure, measuring and recording, and giving it to the doctor when visiting the doctor. The doctor can adjust the amount and type of antihypertensive drugs according to the blood pressure.
The following is the blood pressure record table I made, you can refer to it.

Horizontal version of detailed records ↓↓↓:

  1. Unauthorized reduction of the amount of medicine.

Captopril is a short-acting antihypertensive drug that needs to be taken more often. For Captopril, it takes 2 to 3 times a day to maintain a relatively stable blood pressure, and Xiao Li takes one capsule a day, the drug effect can not be maintained for 24 hours, in fact, it may cause blood pressure fluctuations more obvious, which is more harmful to the condition .

Many patients take the concept of “can eat less and eat less” when taking medicine. We often encounter patients who have been prescribed medicine for one month and can eat for three months or even half a year, which often leads to aggravation of the condition, which is difficult to control.

  1. Once high blood pressure is found, medication should not be taken without authorization. After Xiao Li found that his blood pressure was high, it was wrong to consult his friends around him to buy medicine. This was not right, so he could not treat his specific condition.

We suggest that after finding high blood pressure, you should go to the hospital for treatment, and after a standardized examination, select and adjust the medicine accurately according to the condition.

There are many kinds of antihypertensive drugs, but the indications and side effects of each drug are different. High blood pressure medication pays attention to individualized programs. Selecting drugs according to specific conditions can achieve small dosage, good effect, and reduction. The purpose of side effects.

  1. Hypertension is a lifestyle disease. In addition to standardized antihypertensive medications, lifestyle adjustments also play an important role in antihypertensive treatments. According to research, developing good living habits can lower blood pressure by more than 10mmHg, such as quitting smoking, limiting alcohol, exercising more, low-salt, low-fat, high-fiber diet…

Xinlu Xingchen: It is a pity that although Xiao Li discovered an increase in blood pressure 3 years ago, due to the fact that the blood pressure has not been well controlled, the result has been hypertensive heart disease and hypertensive nephropathy. At this time, it is necessary to choose drugs more carefully. We usually need to choose drugs that can inhibit ventricular remodeling and protect kidney function.

For example, puli or sartans can also be used in combination with dipine drugs. For cases of fast heart rate or combined with angina pectoris, heart failure, etc., you can also consider using beta blockers… while for other Risk factors (hyperlipidemia, diabetes, etc.) also need to be intervened.
Standardized medication treatment and regular follow-up inspections can greatly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular accidents. Don’t take it lightly. In addition to taking medicine, hypertension is also important for monitoring.

Things you should know about growth hormones

Growth hormone (HGH), which is produced naturally by the body’s pituitary gland, plays an important role in cell proliferation, reducing fat, growing muscle, increasing bone density, improving skin luster and the immune system.
Our body’s growth hormone (Hilma HGH) production peaks at age 20, and declines gradually after that.
Here are some facts you should know about growth hormone.

Growth hormone levels in the body

The organ in the body responsible for regulating growth hormone secretion is the anterior pituitary, which is about the size of a pea grain.
Healthy men should have less than 5 nacks of growth hormone per milliliter of blood, women less than 10 nacks, children 0-20 nacks and newborns 5-40 nacks.

2 Consequences of growth hormone disorder

Since 1960, scientists have used growth hormone to treat stunting in children, whose symptoms include stunting and being too short, as well as late sexual maturation.
It took 20 years for scientists to synthesize growth hormone in the lab.
Extracting growth hormone from dead bodies was also risky, since it may contain a prion that causes transmissible spongiform encephalopathy.
High levels of growth hormone can stimulate the growth of muscles, bones and internal organs, leading to gigantism in childhood.
In adulthood, it can lead to acromegaly.

Application of growth hormone in exercise

In 1982, a book called the Underground Steroid Manual first documented the use of growth hormone to enhance athletic performance. In the world of aerobics, the drug is very common, and the consequences are obvious — to strengthen the stomach.
Many athletes use growth hormone to increase athletic performance, even though some studies show it doesn’t.
Growth hormone does help the body increase muscle mass quickly, but it does not have the desired effect on strength, and athletes around the world are banned from taking it.

4 The myth of growth hormone “rejuvenation”

Since it improves skin elasticity and promotes cell proliferation, growth hormone has been touted by celebrities as a way to stay young forever, and the CEO of Paypal has said publicly that he wants to live to 120 on it.
But a 2007 study by the Stanford University clinical Medicine research group found that healthy older adults who took growth hormone gained an average of about 2 kilograms of muscle and lost about 2 kilograms of fat each.
However, this may be the only positive feedback from using growth hormone, and the researchers did not measure it anywhere else (such as bone density, cholesterol levels, blood fats, and vo2 Max) enough to show any significant difference in the health benefits of growth hormone.
At the same time, synthetic growth hormones can also bring many side effects, such as high blood pressure, heart failure, diabetes and so on.
Moreover, the price of rejuvenating is not low: a set can be recycled for $15,000.

Why does the rainy season cause joint pain? Expert: rheumatoid arthritis treatment in the “standard treatment.

South rain is much, human body damp and hot is apparent, many old rheumatism person appears joint ache or the circumstance that ache aggravates.
Professor Gu Jieluo, chief physician of the rheumatology department of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, said that for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the rainy season does induce joint pain, but it is not the decisive factor.

In recent years, the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is no longer limited to the control of symptoms, but to prevent joint damage, prevent disability, to achieve this goal, the key lies in the “standard treatment”.

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have misunderstandings about treatment

Rheumatoid arthritis is a refractory type of rheumatism that is controllable but not curable.
Professor Gu jieruo said that the current treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, many patients have many misunderstandings:

Stop the medicine when the pain is gone.
Some patients in the treatment of a period of time, found that the symptoms of relief, on their own drug, no longer treatment.
In fact, many patients do not know “both symptoms and root causes”, clinical symptom improvement and complete remission of the disease is not the same, painless may only be a superficial phenomenon, the drug to ease the disease at will stop, the disease will continue to develop.

Worried about the side effects of western medicine.
Some patients worry about immune modulators slow-acting drug has side effects of this kind of control condition, is not willing to do as standard treatment, many patients by the day to eat, eat a few days he said did not did not eat, a look at the instruction thought of liver toxicity is bigger, more worry, rather sore joints, the last joint destroy, he never go to take medicine.

The concept of drug surveillance has not been established.
For severe rheumatoid arthritis patients, early will use a small dose of short course of hormone drugs, a lot of 10 mg of hormone medication every day, but patients often do not want to cooperate to take.
In fact, as long as the long-term monitoring of drug effects and side effects, it is possible to achieve the goal of slowly reducing drugs.

Unwilling to take imaging tests.
Rheumatoid arthritis patients often recommended imaging tests, but clinical many patients do not go to the photo, or the doctor did not let him go to the film.
“It’s not just about pain relief, it’s also about stopping or delaying the damage to the joints.”
“This is the most important core goal of rheumatoid arthritis treatment, to allow the patient to control inflammation without breaking the bone, or the joint will lose function and reduce mobility,” Said Gujero.
Therefore, the patient should cooperate with the doctor to do a good imaging examination.

Disease treatment focuses on “standard treatment”

To avoid joint pain and effectively prevent joint damage, the key lies in the “standard treatment”.

At present, the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis drugs are divided into several categories.
One is to control the symptoms of drugs, including mainly anti-inflammatory analgesics;
The other is drugs to alleviate the disease, mainly including immunosuppressants such as methotrexate, salazosulfopyridine, leflemide, etc. From 1998 to now, three so-called biotargeted single-target, double-target, multi-target biological agents have been on the market. Now, targeted synthesis of DMARDs has emerged, entering the era of JAK inhibitors.

Such as represented by Barry for his piece JAK1/2 inhibitor, can by acting on intracellular JAK pathway, to directly class wind shut disease related to a variety of inflammatory cytokines, thus to control the disease, to prevent joint damage and deformation, and from the traditional biological agents of subcutaneous or intravenous changed to oral, in the patient’s medication adherence, economic benefit and benefit aspects of joints, is all the more advantage.

Why does the latest edition of Chinese rheumatoid arthritis Diagnosis and Treatment guidelines emphasize “standard treatment”?
“Standard treatment” : clinical remission or low disease activity achieved through treatment.
Standard treatment can stabilize the disease, block the course of disease and bone destruction, and improve the quality of life of patients.

“Patients still have insufficient understanding of the course of treatment, as well as the efficacy and the final outcome. Clinically, many patients are just satisfied with the treatment of symptoms and do not pay attention to the standardized treatment process with doctors.”
GuJie if said, “a routine observation treatment rheumatoid arthritis will need at least three months, general to six months, patients can achieve a joint is not red, swollen, pain, but many patients stop drug to indolence, hurt again eat for two days, and the whole medical system and perfect strategy is not enough, not reached the state of clinical alleviate casually by drugs and drug withdrawal, is out of the specification.”

Can saliva be infected with AIDS? Can AIDS be cured?

AIDS has become one of the three major killers of human life and health. The destructive power of AIDS to human health has made many people talk about AIDS.

But there is no denying that there are many misconceptions about AIDS.
These things about AIDS, you know?

Saliva, sharing tableware…
Can you get HIV

In daily life, many people worry about being infected with HIV without knowing it.
According to The capital Medical University affiliated hospital Of Beijing Ditan Hospital infectious disease diagnosis and treatment center chief physician Zhao Hongxin introduced, in fact, the spread of AIDS only three ways, namely sexual transmission, blood transmission, mother-to-child transmission.

There is evidence that HIV is not transmitted through contact, tears, sweat or saliva, and without blood there is no risk of infection.

Therefore, HIV does not infect people in the following ways:

Breathe the same air as hiv-positive patients;

Touching a toilet or door handle after being HIV positive;

Hug, kiss or shake hands with someone living with HIV.

Sharing tableware with people living with HIV;

Share exercise equipment at the gym.

Will you die soon after being infected with HIV

The fear of AIDS stems in large part from its high mortality rate.

However, the incubation period varies among people living with HIV, with some becoming ill within a few months and others living with HIV for decades and even life expectancy.
To be exact, the death rate of AIDS without treatment is 100 percent, but current antiviral treatment has greatly reduced the death rate of AIDS and prolonged the lives of patients.

Can the mother be HIV positive and have children at ease

Mother-to-child transmission is mainly perinatal transmission, the child may be through friction, contact with amniotic fluid and blood when passing through the birth canal and is transmitted through breastfeeding.

The method that avoid is, the first do not give a child to eat breast milk, the 2nd can caesarean section, the 3rd take antivirals, make the virus in mother blood reduces to the lowest, the virus of birth canal can drop from 25% to 2%.

Can AIDS be cured

So far, THERE is no cure for AIDS.

Take note, these people

Zhao Hongxin, chief physician of infectious Disease Diagnosis and Treatment Center, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Capital Medical University, pointed out that:

There are recurrent ulcers in the mouth, or some white spots, rotten corners of the mouth, these symptoms should also be considered when there is a possibility of HIV infection.

If you have a persistent fever that cannot be explained by a common cold infection, you should also consider the possibility of HIV infection.

(3) Memory loss and inattention at a young age may be signs of HIV infection,

(4) persistent diarrhea.

Inexplicable weight loss at a young age.

These situations, and high-risk behavior should be timely detection.

How to prevent AIDS effectively

There are three ways to spread AIDS, and the following preventive measures can be taken:


Prevent transmission by sexual contact

Abiding by sexual morality, fixed sexual partners and safe sex are effective measures to prevent the transmission of AIDS by sexual means.

The correct use of quality condoms can reduce the risk of HIV infection.
Got venereal or suspect to have venereal should as early as possible to appoint medical establishment or regular hospital examination, treatment.


Prevent transmission through blood

Keep away from drugs, resist drugs.
Drugs are a hotbed for the spread of AIDS. Drug users like to inject drugs intravenously or subcutaneously, and the needles used for injecting drugs often contain HIV, which becomes an important way for the transmission of AIDS.

(2) do not accept HIV antibody test without qualified blood, blood products and organs;

Do not use a syringe that has not been strictly sterilized;

(4) Do not share syringes and razors with others.


Prevention of mother-to-child transmission

Women infected with HIV should avoid pregnancy;
Once pregnant, the termination of pregnancy should be considered under the guidance of a doctor.

Those who choose to continue their pregnancy should take measures such as antiviral intervention and cesarean delivery to interrupt transmission, and avoid breastfeeding newborns after delivery.