Viral hepatitis prevention and control knowledge points
First, basic knowledge
Viral hepatitis is a common infectious disease caused by a variety of hepatitis viruses.
Hepatitis viruses can be classified as type A, B, C, D and E.
Most cases of hepatitis A and hepatitis E are acute, and the prognosis is good.
The course of hepatitis B and C is complex and chronic, which can lead to cirrhosis or liver cancer.
The clinical manifestations of all types of viral hepatitis are similar, with fatigue, loss of appetite, hepatomegaly and abnormal liver function as the main symptoms in the acute phase, and jaundice in some cases.
Chronic infection may have mild or no clinical symptoms.
Second, the transmission way and prevention of viral hepatitis
Hepatitis A and E are transmitted through the digestive tract, while hepatitis B and C are transmitted through blood, mother-to-child and sexual transmission.
Hepatitis A and E are mainly transmitted through the digestive tract. Contamination of water or food can cause outbreaks.
Hepatitis B and C are mainly transmitted through blood, mother to child and sex.
For example, transfusion of blood and blood products contaminated with the virus, use of unsterilized syringes and needles (for injecting drugs, etc.), invasive medical or cosmetic devices (for tattoos, piercing of ears, etc.), and sharing of razors and toothbrushes;
Having unprotected sex with an infected person;
A pregnant woman with the virus can transmit it to her newborn.
The transmission way of Ding liver and second liver are similar, with second liver virus at the same time or on the basis of second liver virus infection ability is infected.
Inoculate second liver vaccine is the safest, effective measure that prevents second liver.
China implements free hepatitis B vaccine for newborns, and three doses should be given in accordance with the “0, 1, and 6 months” immunization program. The first dose should be given as early as 24 hours after birth.
Except the neonatal and adult high-risk groups such as the medical staff, often contact with blood and blood products, childcare facilities staff, often receive blood transfusions and blood products, low immune function, professional easy to occur outside of the injured, hepatitis b virus surface antigen positive gay sex, family members, men have more sex partners or injecting drug users and so on should also be hepatitis b vaccination.
- Mother-to-child blocking measures can effectively prevent mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B.
The pregnant and puerpera with positive surface antigen of second liver virus is in the process of pregnancy or childbirth, may infect second liver virus to fetus or newborn.
The younger the age at the time of infection, the higher the risk of the transformation to chronic viral hepatitis, so it is of great significance to carry out mother-to-child hepatitis B blockade.
Pregnant women with positive HBsAg should ensure hospital delivery to minimize the exposure of the newborn to maternal blood.
Newborns born to pregnant women with positive surface antigen of hepatitis B virus should receive the first injection of hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible within 24 hours after birth, at the same time, inject hepatitis B immunoglobulin, and complete subsequent doses of vaccination in accordance with the immunization procedures of hepatitis B vaccine.
Pregnant women with high hepatitis B viral load can receive standard antiviral treatment under the guidance of professional physicians.
Attention to diet, drinking water hygiene and vaccination can effectively prevent hepatitis A and hepatitis E.
Improve environmental sanitation, strengthen water and excrement management, improve water supply conditions;
Develop good personal hygiene habits, wash hands before meals, do not eat raw food, do not drink raw water, can effectively prevent hepatitis A and hepatitis E.
Vaccination is effective in preventing hepatitis A and E.
Hepatitis A vaccine has been included in the expanded national immunization program, and free vaccination is available to children aged 18 months.
Food is produced and managed the key crowd such as staff of staff of establishment of staff of staff of nursery institution, collective life also should inoculate armour liver vaccine.
Our country already has hepatitis E vaccine, can be vaccinated voluntarily at one’s own expense.
Cut off the transmission route, can effectively prevent hepatitis C.
There is no vaccine for hepatitis C, but it can be prevented with effective measures to cut off transmission.
Refuse drugs and do not share needles to inject drugs;
Put an end to illegal blood collection and supply;
Avoid unnecessary injections, blood transfusions and the use of blood products;
The risk of HCV infection can be significantly reduced by receiving injections, blood transfusions and using blood products at a proper health care facility.
The following behaviors can also be effective in preventing hepatitis C:
Do not share needles or other tools such as tattoos and piercings with others, and do not share personal belongings such as razors and toothbrushes that may cause bleeding with others.
Use condoms correctly and avoid unsafe sex.
If women infected with HCV wish to have children, it is best to become pregnant after the cure of HCV.
- Hepatitis B and C can not be transmitted by contact with daily work and life.
Hepatitis B and C viruses are not transmitted through the respiratory and digestive tracts.
Therefore, daily work, study and life contacts such as shaking hands, hugging, working in the same office, sharing office supplies, living in the same dormitory, eating in the same restaurant and sharing toilets without blood exposure will not be infected with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus.
The hepatitis B and C viruses were not found to be transmitted by blood-sucking insects such as mosquitoes and bedbugs.
Three, viral hepatitis detection
Have suspected viral hepatitis symptom or easy to infect crowd, should take the initiative to medical institution check.
Hepatic of A and liver of E are acute come on more, if have unclean food history or patient close contact history, accompany suspect viral hepatitis symptom, if whole body is weak, appetite drops, nauseous vomit, abdominal distend, liver area is not well, urine color deepens, should visit a doctor to medical institution as soon as possible check.
Suggest susceptible population (such as traumatic treatment, blood transfusion, are Shared syringes, sexual partners, organ transplantation, use disinfection instruments of the unknown tattoo, tattoo eyeline, pedicure behavior such as personnel, HIV, hepatitis b and hepatitis c patients by a spouse or children) and unexplained abnormal liver biochemical examination active hepatitis b and c inspections to the formal medical institutions, understand their infection status, achieve early discovery, early diagnosis and early treatment.
IV. Treatment of viral hepatitis
Viral hepatitis patient should comply with doctor’s advice, undertake standardized treatment, avoid by all means stop medicine by oneself or credulous false advertisement.
The vast majority of hepatitis A and hepatitis E are acute viral hepatitis, and most patients can recover completely within half a year after timely and standardized treatment.
A small number of serious patients have the risk of liver failure, should be paid attention to.
Second liver turns easily chronic, there is no effective medicine to be able to clear second liver virus completely at present, but classics standard antiviral treatment, can limit restrain virus replication, delay and reduce liver damage, prevent the occurrence of liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and its complications, improve life quality and prolong life.
Patients should establish confidence, maintain patience, follow the doctor’s advice, actively cooperate with the treatment, and insist on regular examination, to ensure the treatment effect.
On the contrary, arbitrary drug selection, random drug change, self-withdrawal, and not on time return examination, may cause virus resistance, disease rebound or recurrence.
In the process of diagnosis and treatment do not believe in excessive publicity and false advertising, so as not to cause illness delay and economic losses.
Hepatitis C is also easy to turn chronic, after the standard full course of antiviral treatment, the vast majority of patients can be cured.
All viral hepatitis patients should avoid drinking, smoking, irrational drug use and other behaviors that aggravate liver damage.
V. Rights and Obligations
Prevention and treatment of viral hepatitis is the common responsibility of the whole society.
At present, the situation of viral hepatitis prevention and control in China is grim, with a large base of chronic viral hepatitis patients accumulated for a long time, acute viral hepatitis occasionally occurring, and the risk of transmission still exists.
Prevention and control of viral hepatitis requires close departmental collaboration and the understanding, participation and support of the public.
Efforts should be made to eliminate social discrimination against those infected with hepatitis B.
“About further standardize the enrollment and employment physical examination project Hepatitis b surface antigen carriers and employment rights notice requirements, all kinds of education institutions at all levels, unit of choose and employ persons in the citizens’ admission, employment, medical, shall not be required to carry out the project detection of hepatitis b, shall not be required to provide hepatitis b project inspection report, also may not ask whether for hepatitis b surface antigen carriers.
Medical and health institutions at all levels shall not provide hepatitis B testing services in the physical examination for enrollment or employment.
No educational institution at any level or of any kind shall refuse to enroll students or require them to drop out of school on the grounds that they carry hepatitis B surface antigen.
Except for the special occupation that the national health committee approves and gives to announce, healthy physical examination is not required to detect second liver project because of the person being examined, the unit of choose and employ persons must not refuse to recruit with laborer to carry second liver surface antigen for (employ) use or dismiss, dismiss.
- While people infected with viral hepatitis enjoy their rights, they should also assume their obligations to others and society.
An infected person with viral hepatitis should abide by the relevant provisions of the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, accept relevant measures for the prevention and control of infectious diseases from disease prevention and control institutions and medical institutions in accordance with the law, and provide relevant information truthfully.
Before they are cured or before they are cleared of suspicion of infectious diseases, they shall not engage in work that is prohibited by laws, administrative regulations and the administrative department of health under the State Council from engaging in work that is likely to cause the spread of infectious diseases.
According to the implementation rules of the Regulations on the Administration of Public Health, the operators of public places shall organize the employees to carry out health examination every year, and the employees can only take up their posts after obtaining effective health certificates.
Personnel suffering from hepatitis A or hepatitis E shall not engage in work directly serving customers before they are cured.