Will the epidemic return this winter? Is COVID-19 vaccine necessary?

The joint prevention and control mechanism of The State Council held a press conference in Beijing on the afternoon of December 21. Leading officials and experts from the China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Health Commission (NHC) and the Development and Research Center for Medicine and Health Science and Technology attended the press conference to introduce the prevention and control of COVID-19 in winter and spring and the vaccination of key populations.

  1. Is the COVID-19 vaccine developed in China safe?
    How much of an effect?

Zheng Zhongwei, Head of the Vaccine R&d Task Force of the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of The State Council and director of the Development Research Center for Medicine and Health Science and Technology of the National Health Commission,

The safety and effectiveness of vaccines are of great concern, and the safety and effectiveness of vaccines are also two key quality indicators for evaluation of vaccines.
Generally speaking, the safety of the vaccine refers to whether there will be adverse reactions and serious adverse reactions in our vaccinated subjects after vaccination. If no serious adverse reactions occur, we generally consider the vaccine to be safe.

The phase I, II and III clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccine in China, as well as the nearly one million emergency vaccinations that have been carried out in accordance with the law and under the premise of voluntary and informed consent, fully demonstrate that COVID-19 vaccine in China is very safe, with some minor adverse reactions but no serious adverse reactions.

At the same time, in the course of emergency use, more than 60,000 vaccinators have been to high-risk areas outside China. So far, we have not received a single case of serious infection, which is another proof that our vaccine has a certain protective effect.

  1. Is COVID-19 vaccine really necessary?
    After dozen need not wear a mask again?

Wang Huaqing, Chief expert of immunization Program of China CDC:

Vaccination is very important.

On the one hand, almost all people have no immunity from irus from a novel Coronavirus, so they are susceptible to virus from a novel Coronavirus. Moreover, most of them will become ill after infection, and some will even develop into critical illness or death.
After vaccination, the vast majority of people gain immunity;
On the other hand, vaccination will set up an immune barrier in the population, and novel Coronavirus transmission can be blocked to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic.

However, before the establishment of the population immune barrier, even if some people have been vaccinated, people’s awareness of prevention and control measures should not be relaxed.
Therefore, masks should continue to be worn after vaccination, especially in crowded places such as public transport, as well as other protective measures such as hand hygiene, ventilation and social distancing.

  1. With the recent confirmed COVID-19 cases in many regions, will the epidemic return this winter?

Wu Zunyou, chief epidemiologist of the China CDC:

In the past nearly a year’s prevention and control practice, China has accumulated a set of effective methods for timely detection and timely control of the epidemic, and on this basis, China has further improved its prevention and control strategy.
Measures to prevent a resurgence of the epidemic this winter and next spring have been put in place, and The State Council has also sent a monitoring team to monitor and inspect the prevention and control measures in all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government.
These measures will ensure that the outbreak will not return this winter and next spring.

At present, the source of the virus in many sporadic cases in China has been basically ascertained. One is the associated case caused by people infected abroad, and the other is the object transmission caused by the contamination of foreign articles.

  1. According to the results of the current trial, what are the main adverse reactions of COVID-19 vaccine?
    If there is an adverse reaction, what should be done?

Wang Huaqing, Chief expert of immunization Program of China CDC:

Clinical research results show that COVID-19 vaccine is similar to other inactivated vaccines, and the general reaction is mainly manifested as local swelling and pain at the inoculation site. Due to individual differences, a small number of people may have fever, fatigue, nausea, headache, muscle pain, etc., which generally can recover spontaneously without treatment.
Severe abnormal reactions usually refer to life-threatening, disabling or disabling conditions that occur after inoculation and require on-site first aid and hospitalization.
According to the currently available data of clinical trials of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in China, no such severe abnormal reactions have occurred.

However, it should be emphasized that acute seere anaphylaxis and syncope generally occur within 30 minutes of vaccination, although the probability of occurrence is extremely low, but should be observed at the vaccination site for 30 minutes after vaccination.

There is also the possibility of coincidences after vaccination.
Coincidental reaction is when the inoculator happens to be in the incubation period or early stages of some other disease, and coincidentally at the time of inoculation, the disease also comes on.
So, it has nothing to do with vaccination, it has nothing to do with the quality of the vaccine, it’s not an adverse reaction.

  1. Will our prevention and control strategies be adjusted after the vaccination starts?

Wu Zunyou, chief epidemiologist of the China CDC:

Personal protective measures, such as wearing masks, maintaining social distance and washing hands frequently, are still the simplest and most effective measures to control the epidemic and prevent individual infection.

For individuals, it takes time from vaccination to protection;
For social groups, it also takes time to vaccinate enough people.
Therefore, to prevent the outbreak of COVID-19 this winter and next spring, we should not put all bets on vaccines. The existing prevention and control strategies and measures should still be adhered to.

  1. What is the international level of the COVID-19 vaccine developed in China?

Zheng Zhongwei, Head of the Vaccine R&d Task Force of the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of The State Council and director of the Development Research Center for Medicine and Health Science and Technology of the National Health Commission,

At present, 15 COVID-19 vaccines have entered the clinical trial stage in China, among which 5 vaccines have entered the phase III clinical trial, including 3 inactivated vaccines, 1 adenovirus vector vaccine and 1 recombinant protein vaccine. In terms of the number and technical route covered, China’s COVID-19 vaccine is in the first international group.
The inactivated vaccines of Sinopharmaceutical and Kexingzhongwei are the first vaccines in phase III clinical trials in the world.

However, due to the good control of COVID-19 in China, the country is no longer qualified to carry out phase III clinical trials.
Phase III clinical trials of vaccines in China have been carried out abroad, with complex coordination and high time cost. Moreover, China’s vaccine r&d enterprises have limited experience in internationalization.
In addition, China’s phase III clinical trial cooperation countries and regions are not the regions with the highest incidence of the epidemic in the world. Therefore, the speed of obtaining the cases needed for phase III clinical trial is not the fastest.

Vaccine development, whether first or fastest, should respect the law of science.
Recently, we have obtained the number of cases required for the mid-term analysis of phase III clinical trial, and are submitting relevant data to the State Food and Drug Administration in a rolling manner to promote the registration and marketing of COVID-19 vaccine in China.

7, double festival approaching, we travel frequently, in this process, the individual should pay attention to what?

Wu Zunyou, chief epidemiologist of the China CDC:

First, reduce the flow of people. During the New Year’s Day and the Spring Festival, we should make reasonable arrangements to reduce unnecessary trips and encourage people to return home during the Spring Festival travel rush.
People such as the elderly, people with chronic diseases and pregnant women are not recommended to travel.
If you plan to travel across regions, you should know the local epidemic situation and prevention and control policies in advance, and know whether there are any recent cases or outbreaks in the destination. It is recommended to postpone the travel in medium-high risk areas.
Be prepared with masks, hand sanitizers and other items for use on the road.

The second is to reduce travel risks.
Measures such as ventilation and disinfection should be strengthened in transportation stations and vehicles during festivals.
Passengers should abide by the order and orderly queuing, wear masks throughout the journey, do personal protection such as hand disinfection on the way, minimize the number of meals on the means of transportation, and properly keep the ticket for inquiry.
Also monitor your health during the trip.

Third, reduce the number of people.
During the festival, minimize gathering activities.
Enterprises and institutions shall control the number of people involved in gatherings and other activities. For activities involving more than 50 people, prevention and control plans shall be formulated and relevant prevention and control measures shall be strictly implemented.
Encourage family private gatherings and meals to be under 10 people, and take good personal protection.
Encourage families to open Windows for ventilation every day.

Fourth, strengthen the publicity and education of health science knowledge.
Local governments should step up publicity on prevention and control of COVID-19 and safe travel during festivals, guide the public to strengthen self-prevention and control, and advocate good hygiene habits such as wearing masks in crowd gathering and closed places, washing hands frequently, making chopsticks, eating separately, and paying attention to covering up when coughing or sneezing.

Five is found fever, dry cough, fatigue and other suspicious symptoms, to seek medical advice as soon as possible.

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