Who and 37 countries call for global vaccine sharing

Thirty-seven countries and the world health organization (who) on Thursday called for vaccines, medicines and diagnostic tools to be made available to all people in response to a global novel coronavirus outbreak.

“Vaccines against novel coronavirus, testing, diagnosis, treatment and other important means must be universally available as a global public good,” costa rican President carlos alvarado said.

The initiative, first proposed in March, aims to provide a one-stop shop for scientific knowledge, data and intellectual property at a time when the epidemic is already severe.
Developing countries and some small countries fear that rich countries, which have invested heavily in the search for a vaccine and have many in the pipeline, will be pushed to the front of the queue if an alternative vaccine succeeds.

The who issued a “solidarity call for action”, asking other stakeholders to join the voluntary initiative.

“Who recognizes the important role that patents play in driving innovation, but this is a time when people must consider the primary objective,” who director-general tedros tedros told a news conference, according to the report.

China and the United States have taken the lead in the development of covid-19 vaccine

Japan’s mainichi shimbun reported on May 25 that according to the calculation of the world health organization, the world is advancing the research of 124 candidate covid-19 vaccines, of which 10 have entered clinical trials on human subjects, while the United States and China are in the lead in vaccine research and development.
The content of the article is compiled as follows:

Writing in the Wall Street journal, former U.S. food and drug administration (fda) commissioner Scott gottlieb stressed that countries that are the first to reach the finish line in the race to develop vaccines will be the first to regain their economic and global clout.
Gottlieb believes that countries that successfully develop vaccines will prioritize domestic vaccinations, and even if there is international cooperation in the vaccine supply system, it will be years before the world can get the vaccine it needs.

In the United States, modena is leading the way in developing candidate vaccines.
The U.S. drug administration on Tuesday named modena as a priority for review in an effort to make the vaccine practical.
In general, clinical trials are carried out in three phases to confirm safety and efficacy.
Modena has been approved to start phase ii trials of the candidate vaccine and will enter the final phase iii trial this summer.

The U.S. government has secured a $10 billion budget to support a program called operation warp speed, which will support manufacturing systems from clinical trials for promising domestic and foreign vaccine candidates.
US President Donald trump stressed at a press conference on Monday that the goal is to get the vaccine by the end of the year.

Five research groups in China are pushing forward with clinical trials of the vaccine.
A research group based at the Chinese academy of military sciences (cas) reported in the British medical journal the lancet on Tuesday that they conducted phase I clinical trials of the covid-19 vaccine, and the results showed that the vaccine was safe.
Gao fu, director of the Chinese center for disease control and prevention, said in an interview with Hong Kong media on Friday that a covid-19 vaccine that can be used in emergencies may be available before the end of the year.
In addition, China plans to issue 1 trillion yuan of special anti-epidemic bonds to support infectious disease countermeasures, including vaccine research and development.

Rivalry between the United States and China over trade issues has also cast a shadow over competition for vaccine development.
Hackers with ties to the Chinese government are trying to steal U.S. vaccine research data, the federal bureau of investigation (fbi) warned Chinese research institutions and companies on Monday.
China’s foreign ministry said on Tuesday that it is strongly dissatisfied with and opposed to the us’s smear.
The United States has carried out the largest cyber theft on record worldwide.

Even if vaccine development is successful, there is no guarantee that the supply system will be complete, because the ownership of equipment is limited to the world’s big pharmaceutical companies and so on.
The Oxford University research team, the first in Europe to enter clinical trials of the covid-19 vaccine, worked with astrazeneca, a British pharmaceutical company, and the United States pledged support of up to $1.2 billion to astrazeneca, which announced it would ensure 300 million doses of the vaccine.
The us side of the “occupation” trend strengthened.

On the other hand, the situation is worrying with regard to international cooperation to achieve equitable distribution.
The European Union and Japan have submitted a draft resolution to the who to limit the patent rights of research and development companies, with the aim of making covid-19 vaccines and therapeutic drugs available at lower prices in developing countries and elsewhere.
The draft resolution was adopted by the who general assembly on March 19.
But the United States has objected to patent-related provisions.

(the 2020-05-27 14:11:51)

[extended reading]

foreign media: Chen wei’s team made significant progress in vaccine

A novel coronavirus vaccine is safe and can induce a rapid immune response, a team of Chinese researchers said in a report published in the British medical journal the lancet on Monday.
German media said the development was unprecedented.

The clinical trial was conducted by a team led by academician Chen wei of the institute of biological engineering at the academy of military medicine, academy of military sciences.
The vaccine used in the trial is a recombinant novel coronavirus vaccine with an adenovirus vector.
The team recruited 108 healthy adult volunteers between the ages of 18 and 60 for the trial.
The volunteers were given different doses of the vaccine in different groups.

Within 28 days of vaccination, the vaccine was well tolerated in groups with different doses and did not cause serious adverse reactions, the report said.

The study showed that the vaccine triggered an immune response to a novel coronavirus, an unprecedented development, dpa reported on May 22.
Further experiments are needed to see if the reaction can also stop people from getting the virus.

“These results are an important milestone,” said researcher wei Chen.
A single dose of ad5-ncov was sufficient to produce virus-specific neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses within 14 days.

Still, Chen advised “caution” in interpreting the findings.
“While novel coronavirus vaccine development shows promise, we are still a long way from a vaccine that will work for everyone,” she said.

The main limitations of the trial include a small sample size, a short trial period and the lack of a randomized control group, so further trials are needed, the report said.

According to the lancet, the development of an effective vaccine is a long-term solution to covid-19 prevention and control. Currently, more than 100 novel coronavirus vaccines are being developed worldwide.

A volunteer doctor inoculated a novel coronavirus vaccine against an adenovirus vector in wuhan, China (file photo)

(the 2020-05-24 15:27:17)

A plan to test vaccines for 100,000 people in the United States has raised safety concerns

The United States plans to carry out large-scale trials involving more than 100,000 volunteers and five or six of the most promising vaccine candidates, aiming to provide a safe and effective novel coronavirus vaccine by the end of 2020, according to the project lead scientist quoted by British media on May 24.
But the practice has raised concerns.

Chicago, May 22 (Reuters) – the project will compress what would normally be a decade of vaccine development and testing into a few months, demonstrating the urgency of containing the current pandemic.
To that end, leading vaccine makers have agreed to share data and let competitors use their networks of clinical trials even if their alternative vaccines fail, the scientists said.

Vaccine candidates that show safety in small, early studies will be tested in large-scale trials involving 20, 000 to 30, 000 subjects, which are scheduled to begin in July, the report said.

Larry currie, a vaccine expert at the Fred hutchinson cancer research center in Seattle, helped design the trials.
Corey said the number of participants could be between 100,000 and 150,000.

“If no safety issues are found, the trial will continue,” said Francis Collins, director of the national institutes of health.
The vaccine initiative is part of a public-private partnership announced last month to accelerate covid-19 therapeutic interventions and vaccine development.

The vaccine is intended for use by healthy people and usually goes through a series of trials, starting with animal trials, the report said.
Human trials begin with small safety trials on healthy volunteers, followed by larger studies to find the right dose and early measurements of effectiveness.
The final stage is large-scale testing in tens of thousands of people.
Only then will vaccine developers commit to mass production.

During a covid-19 outbreak, many of these steps will overlap, especially in the middle and late stages of the trial, Collins and Corey said.

The practice is risky, the report said, because some safety issues may occur only in large-scale trials.
Americans are worried about the speed with which novel coronavirus vaccines are being developed, according to a Reuters/ipsos poll.
The U.S. government has allocated billions of dollars to help manufacturers develop vaccines that may never prove effective.

To get answers as soon as possible, the vaccine will be tested on health care workers and in communities where the virus is still circulating, the report said.
Washington, dc, which has yet to reach its peak, may be a testing ground.
Collins says the trials could also take place abroad, including in Africa, where the virus has just spread.

The us government reportedly plans to use its own network of trials to find potential volunteers, including health facilities of the department of veterans affairs, while drug makers will recruit through their clinical research networks.

(the 2020-05-24 14:45:00)

China accounted for half of the world’s eight vaccines in clinical trials

Beijing, May 22 (chinamil) — China and the United States are engaged in a strategic and defensive battle in the field of vaccine research and development, the nihon keizai shimbun said in an article published on May 20.
The article is edited as follows:

China and the United States have launched a fierce attack and defense war with an eye to the practical use of novel coronavirus vaccine.
Us biotech company modena said it had completed preliminary clinical trials of the vaccine and confirmed the antibody, and will begin large-scale clinical trials in July.
Several companies in China are also stepping up clinical trials of the vaccine, with the aim of putting it into practical use this fall.
In the context of real progress in vaccine development, the focus going forward will be on how to ensure mass production capacity.
A government-led scramble by the us to monopolise the capacity of French companies with mass production capacity has raised concerns.

Early data for the first covid-19 vaccine in clinical trials in the United States have shown positive results, modena announced Thursday.
The company will skip phase ii clinical trials on the effectiveness of the vaccine and proceed directly to phase iii clinical trials before commercial production begins in July.
This would significantly shorten the development cycle that would normally take one to two years to complete.

The United States is leading a national effort to develop a vaccine.
The U.S. agency for advanced biomedical research and development approved a $483 million grant for modena in April.

Even so, China is still the one ahead.
According to the world health organization, as of May 16, a total of eight covid-19 vaccines have entered clinical trials around the world, four of which are from China.
Phase ii clinical trials by Chinese biotechnology company sinovac, which began in April, will end in July.

However, this does not mean that any one company is capable of producing a covid-19 vaccine.
Modena’s vaccine is a messenger RNA vaccine that must have the technical ability to produce.
In addition, making novel coronavirus vaccines requires a lot of equipment such as virus culture and air conditioning, which can only be produced by pharmaceutical giants such as astrazeneca of the UK and Johnson & Johnson of the us.

The war on mass production has already begun.

(the 2020-05-22 11:00:23)

Scientists say they are ‘cautiously optimistic’ about rapid development of covid-19 vaccine

According to the us media on May 21, scientists are cautiously optimistic that a covid-19 vaccine can be developed quickly.
In a medical research project of almost unmatched ambition and scale, volunteers around the world are rolling up their sleeves and getting an experimental vaccine against the novel coronavirus just months after its discovery.

According to the New York times on May 20, companies such as innovio and Pfizer have begun early human trials of potential vaccines to see if they are safe.
Researchers at the university of Oxford believe they may have a vaccine ready for emergency use as soon as September.

Modena announced Monday local time the encouraging results of a vaccine safety trial involving eight volunteers.
While there are no public figures, the news alone sent hopes — and the company’s share price — soaring.

There is cautious optimism in laboratories around the world that a vaccine — perhaps more than one — will be ready sometime next year, the report said.
With many countries and governments eager to relax restrictions and restart their economies despite the risk of another outbreak, the race to develop and produce vaccines is more urgent than ever.

Scientists are exploring at least four ways to make a vaccine.
Time is so tight that they are combining trials to shorten a development process that would normally take years to complete.

“What people don’t realize is that it often takes years, sometimes decades, to develop a vaccine,” said Dr. Dan baruch, a virologist at beth Israel deaconess medical center in Boston.
“So trying to compress the entire vaccine development process into 12 to 18 months is really unheard of,” he said.

“If successful, it will be the fastest vaccine development program in history,” he said.

Even if scientists develop a vaccine that turns out to be safe and effective, obstacles remain.
With almost all humans susceptible to the virus, officials will have to figure out how to speed up mass production of a vaccine.

But signs of progress continue to emerge.
A prototype vaccine has protected monkeys from novel coronavirus, researchers reported Thursday.
The findings raise new hopes for an effective human vaccine.

Dr Nelson Michael, director of the infectious disease research centre at the walter reed army institute of research, said: “it seems to me that it is possible to develop a vaccine.”

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