Novel Coronavirus is rampant, causing a novel virus to spread from person to person and afflicting many countries in Asia

At present, COVID-19 is becoming more and more dangerous. Thanks to novel Coronavirus mutation in UK, this novel coronavirus will spread more rapidly in UK and Europe.
Novel Coronavirus mutation spreads everywhere, alarming from person to person, many countries in the world begin to take strict measures to prevent mutation virus from entering the territory, China must be careful.

According to the World Wide Web, recently, the UK has confirmed that the mutated virus in the country, this mutation is more infectious than the original virus, 70% more than the original virus.
The closure was immediately ordered by Prime Minister Boris Johnson, and londoners flocked to train stations and underground stations to flee the city.
Many of these countries have closed their transport links to The UK to prevent the virus from entering the country, but there are still a number of unfortunate countries.

Following the discovery of a mutation coronavirus that was more contagious in the UK, more than ten countries have found infected patients infected with a mutation Coronavirus, including European countries such as France, Germany, Ireland, Sweden, as well as countries such as Japan and Lebanon.
Italy has confirmed 14 new COVID-19 positive cases in the UK, the Italian health ministry said Wednesday.
The first case of mutant Novel Coronavirus infection was reported in Sweden on February 26.
The case is reported to be a traveller from the UK and is being quarantined.
The report also said that the Government of Ontario, Canada announced on the evening of 26th that two cases of mutation novel Coronavirus have been found in Canada.
The two cases are a married couple with no recent history of foreign travel and no contact with COVID-19 patients, the source said.
The Ontario government is urging people to continue to comply with the epidemic prevention regulations and stay home as much as possible.
The Public Health Department of Canada also issued a statement calling on the public to strengthen their awareness and take preventive measures to prevent novel Coronavirus from spreading.

Novel Coronavirus variants “are likely to have spread across the United States and may have a significant number by now,” said former FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb on December 27.
According to a report by Japanese media, there have been 7 cases of novel coronavirus infection in Japan, and the first case of human-to-human transmission occurred in China.
In an effort to prevent the spread of the mutated virus, the Japanese government announced Late Friday local time that it would suspend new arrivals from December 28 until the end of January.
According to NHK, a mutation novel Coronavirus recently discovered in the UK has spread to more than 10 countries and regions.
Compared with the original virus, the mutated virus is much more infectious.

Four cases of mutant novel Coronavirus infection were found in Canada

On the 27th local time, Ottawa, the capital of Canada, and British Columbia in the west announced successively that the earliest cases of infection of the mutant new crown virus discovered in the United Kingdom were found in the territory. Including the two cases in the Greater Toronto Area on the 26th, a total of 4 cases of mutant virus infections have been found in two provinces in Canada.

The British Columbia government issued a statement on the 27th that the case was returned to Canada from the UK on Air Canada flight AC855 on December 15. He developed symptoms during isolation and was diagnosed on the 19th.

The case in Ottawa is similar. The patient was diagnosed in isolation after returning to Canada from the UK on December 19.

In addition, according to the statistics of the new crown pneumonia epidemic released by the provinces of Canada that day, the cumulative number of new crown virus infection cases in Canada has exceeded 550,000.

Novel Coronavirus infected over 60% of new cases in London has spread to many countries!

A novel coronavirus variant known as B.1.1.7 has caused an uproar in the world.
According to a report in the journal Science, the mutated virus is about 70 per cent more transmissible than the original strain, and more than 60 per cent of recent COVID-19 infections in London have been caused by the mutated virus.

△ Science magazine screenshots

What do we know about B.1.1.7 Novel Coronavirus varieties?
Major media outlets have been writing articles to interpret the information released by scientists.

Is it a new supervirus?

No, this is just one of the many variants that are coming with novel Coronavirus spreading worldwide.

When researchers looked at the genome of the mutant B.1.1.7 virus, which mutates when it replicates, they were struck by the large number of mutations that have already appeared at 17 sites, according to Science.

Screenshot: B.1.1.7 The mutated virus showed 17 mutations.

△B.1.1.7 Variation novel Coronavirus schematic drawing (image: New York Times)

Is it more contagious than other viruses?

According to the BBC, the b.1.1.7 mutation was first identified in September, and by November it had been linked to about a quarter of COVID-19 infections in London, up from nearly two-thirds in mid-December.

△BBC news screenshots

Niall Ferguson, an epidemiologist at Imperial College London, estimated that the variant spread 50 to 70 percent more often than other variants in the UK.
Novel Coronavirus is usually a relatively small virus infection for a child, but the b.1.1.7 mutation may make children as susceptible as adults, says Wendy Barclay, virologist at Imperial College London.
To determine whether the b.1.1.7 variant is more infectious, researchers are closely watching how it infects cells.

Micky Cevic, an infectious disease specialist at St Andrews University School of Medicine, said on Twitter: “Social distancing, wearing a mask and washing your hands are all known to be effective against the mutating virus.”

Does it lead to more serious diseases?

The New York Times said there was not enough evidence to suggest that the b.1.1.7 mutation caused more severe disease, but scientists said the possibility had not been ruled out.

In South Africa, another pedigree novel Coronavirus showed a special mutation also present in the B.1.1.7 mutation virus.
The mutated virus found in South Africa is spreading rapidly along the coast, and doctors have found that people infected with the virus have higher levels of the virus, which also causes more severe symptoms.

John Nkangasone, director of the African Center for Disease Control and Prevention, said there is evidence that the mutant strain of the virus found in South Africa may be causing serious illness in young people and other healthy age groups, “which is worrying, but we do need more data to be sure.”

Where did the unusual variation come from?

This is a hotly debated question, and one possibility is that the b.1.1.7 mutated virus has acquired a series of new mutations in a particular host.

Other scientists have suggested that the virus may have acquired new mutations through animal populations, such as minks, and that “animal hosts” have become a focus of concern as more and more animal infections are discovered.

Will the mutated virus render the vaccine ineffective?

Most experts do not believe the mutated virus will have a significant impact on the vaccine, although this possibility cannot be ruled out.

The current variant is unlikely to affect the efficacy of the vaccine, but at some point a strain of the virus could render it ineffective, said Monsef Slouy, the NATIONAL adviser on vaccine science.
‘The probability of this happening is very low, but we have to be vigilant,’ he said.

But virologist Christian Anderson suggests that if the b.1.1.7 variant evolved to evade the immune system of immunocompromised patients, the adaptation might help it evade a vaccine that won’t fail, but may no longer be as effective.
“We don’t know yet, but we’ll know soon.”
“Dr. Anderson said.

In which countries is the mutated virus present?

According to Science, the b.1.1.7 mutation may already have spread widely around the world.

The Dutch health minister said researchers had found the mutated strain in a sample taken from a Dutch patient in early December and would find out how the patient was infected and if there were any related cases.

Nextstrain, which has been monitoring the genetic code of virus samples around the world, said the variant has also emerged in Denmark and Australia, with all cases originating in the UK.

In a statement, the CENTERS for Disease Control and Prevention said it is highly likely that the b.1.1.7 mutation has spread widely in the United States because of frequent travel between the two countries.

In addition, Portugal, Norway, Jordan, Japan, Korea and many other countries announced confirmed cases of novel coronavirus infection in their own countries.

The mutant new coronavirus has spread to nearly 20 countries

Following the novel Coronavirus that was found to be more contagious in the UK, new virus variants have been confirmed in Spain, Sweden and Canada.

Novel Coronavirus infected patients have been found in nearly 20 countries in the past 14 days, according to the Beijing News.
The Japanese government announced last night that it would suspend the entry of new passengers worldwide from December 28.
Previously, five confirmed cases of novel Coronavirus infection were reported in Japan, all of whom had recently travelled to the UK.

Two mutation novel Coronavirus infected patients were found in Canada, which had been “locked down”.

According to CTV, on December 26 local time, Ontario, Canada said in a statement that there were two new confirmed cases of mutation coronavirus in the UK.
Ontario thus became the first province in Canada to discover a mutation novel Coronavirus case.

Ontario’s assistant Chief medical officer, Barbara Yaffe, said the two confirmed cases are a couple from the Durham region, east of Toronto.
It is important to note that both men have no recent history of travel or exposure to high-risk cases.
At present, they have been in accordance with the relevant epidemic prevention regulations, self-isolation.

Yaffe also notes that “the presence of two novel variant coronavirus patients is further evidence that Ontarians should stay home as much as possible and comply with the vaccination policy.”

Public health experts said it was “not surprising” that a mutation novel Coronavirus confirmed case appeared in Canada.
/ Screenshot of Canadian TV network CTV

On December 20 local time, the day after the UK officially announced the discovery of the mutation coronavirus, Prime Minister Of Canada Justin Trudeau announced that all commercial and private passenger flights from the UK would be suspended until January 6, 2021.

According to PHAC, “As virus testing continues, it is anticipated that we will see more cases of infected mutation coronavirus in Canada”.

“I am not surprised,” said Brian Conway, Medical Director of The Vancouver Center for Infectious Diseases. “Clearly, novel Coronavirus had begun to spread in Canada before these two confirmed cases were found.”

“We need to do more virus testing to find out where the couple infected with the mutation Coronavirus, and only by understanding the ‘chain of transmission’ can we break it off.”
Conway said.

Ontario has gone into a lockdown, shutting down all non-essential shops and banning indoor activities and social gatherings.

More than 2,000 new confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported in Ontario almost every day for the past 12 days, Reuters reported. Local hospitals are already overwhelmed and the number of patients in Ontario’s intensive care units is expected to reach 1,500 by mid-January.

Four novel coronavirus cases were confirmed in Spain, none of which were serious

According to The Local ES, on December 26, Local time, four confirmed cases of novel Coronavirus infection were reported in Madrid, Spain.
According to the sequencing results, the novel Coronavirus strain infected by them was identical to the mutant coronavirus strain found in the UK.

“All four confirmed cases have traveled to the United Kingdom and entered Spain via Madrid Barajas International Airport, but they are not seriously ill and do not have very serious symptoms of infection,” Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, deputy public health minister for the Madrid region, said at a news conference.

A novel mutation coronavirus was first confirmed in Spain in the United Kingdom.
/ Screenshots from ‘The Local ES’ report

“Local health authorities are in the process of sequencing the viral genomes of three additional patients with suspected novel coronavirus, and results are expected by December 29 or 30,” Mr. Zapatero added.

The move follows a decision by the Spanish government to temporarily ban people from the UK from entering Spain from 0:00 on December 22, except For Spanish citizens and travellers holding Spanish residence permits.

A traveller from the UK was diagnosed in Sweden

According to Reuters, on December 26, Sweden’s Department of Health announced the first case of a novel coronavirus infection in the country.

Public Health Officer Sarah Biforth said that a traveller from the United Kingdom had been diagnosed with avirus from a mutation of the novel Coronavirus and was in quarantine. No further cases of the virus had been found in Sweden.

A traveller from England infected with a mutation of novel Coronavirus was first discovered in Sweden.
/ Screenshots from Reuters

The Government of Sweden announced on 21 December that due to the case of a novel coronavirus infection confirmed in Denmark and the approach of Christmas, travellers from Denmark, with the exception of Swedish citizens, would be prohibited from entering Sweden.
The Swedish health department has also demanded that all travellers arriving from the UK be tested for nucleic acids and self-isolated since 12 December.

In the past 14 days, nearly 20 countries have confirmed cases of mutation coronavirus

To date, in the past 14 days, novel Coronavirus infected patients have been found in nearly 20 countries.

According to BBC, in addition to Canada, Spain and Sweden, confirmed cases of the novel mutation coronavirus were also found in Denmark, Germany, Italy, Iceland, The Netherlands, Australia, Israel, Singapore, France, Switzerland, Lebanon, Ireland and Japan.
To date, there are still several countries with novel coronavirus of unknown origin.

More confirmed cases of novel coronavirus infection were found in Europe.
/ SCREENshots from the BBC report

At the same time, a variant of the novel Coronavirus that appeared in England was discovered in South Africa.
Health authorities in the UK and South Africa “clashed” over the infectiousness and origin of the novel Coronavirus.

On December 23 local time, matt Hancock, Secretary of State for Health, said that a second novel variant coronavirus, related to South Africa, had been discovered in the UK. “This is very worrying because a novel variant coronavirus emerged in the UK is more contagious and appears to have a more severe mutation than the previous variant virus”.

A day later, South Africa’s health minister, Zweli Mukesh, refuted the claim.

“There is no evidence whatsoever that a mutation found ona South African novel Coronavirus is” more contagious “than one found in the UK or elsewhere in the world,” Mukez said in a statement.

Novel Coronavirus appears to be a variant from a novel coronavirus found in The UK and South Africa, but it needs to be investigated further, said Christopher Kengzon, director of the African Center for Disease Control and Prevention, ACCORDING to THE Associated Press.

Novel Coronavirus first appeared “irus from person to person” in Japan

According to The Japan Times, on December 26 local time, following the discovery of a confirmed case of infected mutation coronavirus in various countries around the world, the Government of Japan announced that it would temporarily stop the entry of new passengers worldwide from December 28 to the end of January 2021.

In a statement, the government said It would allow Japanese citizens and foreign nationals with residence permits to enter Japan, but they must provide negative nucleic acid tests within 72 hours of departure.
Immediately upon arrival in Japan, a two-week quarantine is required.

In addition, the Japanese government will also allow business people and students from 11 countries and regions, including the Chinese mainland and other countries and regions with better control of the epidemic, such as South Korea, Vietnam and Singapore.

Due to novel Coronavirus, Japan will stop the entry of foreign citizens.
/ Screenshot from Japan Times

Meanwhile, two mutation novel Coronavirus cases discovered in Britain were confirmed in Japan on the same day. One of them was a pilot over 30 years old who had visited the UK before the diagnosis and returned to Japan on 16 December local time.
The other confirmed case is his relative, a woman with no history of travel to the UK.

For professional reasons, the pilot was not subject to quarantine at the airport, and was finally confirmed by tests in Tokyo.
According to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan, the woman with no travel history from Britain was infected by the same man in Japan, and this mutation novel Coronavirus is the first to appear “irus from person to person” in Japan.

On December 25 local time, five travellers returning from The UK were confirmed infected with a mutation of a novel Coronavirus. This was the first confirmed case of a mutation coronavirus in Japan.

Tokyo Medical University professor Dumo Hamada said it was time for Japan to take some new measures, including tightening border controls, kyodo news reported.

“Once this novel Coronavirus, a highly contagious mutation, enters Japan, the number of confirmed cases in Tokyo could hit 2,000 in a day and put the epidemic in another state of emergency,” notes Mr. Hamada.

The global fight against vaccines: Some countries have ordered enough vaccines for the whole country to fight 10 times. What about those poor countries?

The new crown vaccine has not yet been officially launched, and countries around the world have already begun to “grab the vaccine.”

At present, more than 11 billion doses of the new crown vaccine have been ordered globally, of which nearly 8 billion doses have been subscribed by countries or economies, and 3.9 billion are reserved or are still in the negotiation stage.

Among them, Pfizer, Moderna, Sinopharm and other popular models have been launched in many countries, and many vaccines have not yet completed clinical trials, but have sold more than 1 billion.

Over time, these data will continue to rise rapidly.

Although only from a numerical point of view, the vaccines that have been rushed to cover the vast majority of the world’s population and the global anti-epidemic seems to have seen the light, but unfortunately, more than half of the vaccines have already been used by developed countries such as the European Union, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada. The economy is the first to subscribe, and the subscription volume in some countries is even enough for the national population to vaccinate 10 times.

But for people in most parts of the world, it will take longer to get a vaccine.

According to forecasts, rich countries are expected to complete the vaccination of high-risk groups in the spring of 2021 and basically complete the vaccination work after the summer, but poor countries may lag behind by nearly a year.

Such a fierce and cruel battle against seedlings is like looting strategic resources. It seems that whoever can grab more vaccines faster will have the priority to end the country’s epidemic.

On November 9, 2020, in New York, USA, when a pedestrian walked past Pfizer’s global headquarters, the building glass reflected the new crown epidemic prevention information publicized on the street. On the same day, Pfizer announced on its official website that preliminary results showed that the new crown vaccine candidate developed in cooperation with BioNTech was more than 90% effective.
Rich countries cast their nets, and the four countries share 40% of the world’s vaccines

“Rich countries have been pre-ordering vaccines all summer.” Melinda Gates, co-chairman of the Gates Foundation, is true.

According to incomplete statistics from “Phoenix Weekly”, as of December 23, 2020, 7.93 billion new crown vaccines worldwide have been confirmed to be pre-purchased by countries and international organizations, of which more than half are in the pockets of developed countries, with a total of 4.13 billion doses, enough for the world /4 is used by the population.

Among them, the European Union, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada have all pre-purchased more than 300 million doses of vaccines. They have bought 44% of the world’s new crown vaccines with only 11% of the world’s population, and have achieved fruitful results.

But this also means that the number of reservations will far exceed actual demand, and there will be a situation of fewer monks and more porridge.

For example, as of press time, Canada, with a population of less than 40 million, has ordered 350 million doses of the new crown vaccine. If we estimate that each person needs to be vaccinated with 2 doses, this number is enough for each person to get nearly 10 doses, which is nearly 4 times higher than normal.

The per capita orders in the United Kingdom, the European Union, the United States, New Zealand, and Australia are also 1-3 doses more than normal.

The gap is still widening.

On December 23, 2020, the United States announced an additional order of 100 million doses of vaccine, with a total price of approximately US$2 billion. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Aza said that this move is intended to “provide adequate doses of vaccine for all who are willing to be vaccinated before July 31, 2021.”

However, most of the time such a large order quantity is not intended to monopolize resources, but to prevent risks.

As there is still no new crown vaccine officially approved for marketing in the world, there are still a large number of candidate vaccines undergoing clinical trials, which may be greatly delayed or even aborted due to unsatisfactory results at any time, resulting in invalid orders and no receipt of particles.

For example, as early as September 2020, the new crown vaccine jointly developed by AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford had emergency suspension of global clinical trials due to “rare and severe” neurological symptoms of vaccinators.

The peer-reviewed data published by The Lancet shows that the vaccine still needs to complete more work to determine whether the effectiveness of its new crown vaccine can reach 90%.

The clinical trials of Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline vaccines, which are favored by European and American countries, are still in their infancy. In mid-December, the R&D work of the two companies was postponed due to the poor immune response of elderly subjects, and the market could not be launched until the end of 2021 at the earliest.

It can be seen that if you want to ensure that at least one of the vaccines can be ordered successfully, or even earlier, you need to cast the net, bet more, and order multiple vaccines separately as “spare tires.”

For example, the European Union, which ranks first in the order of rich countries, has pre-ordered 1.58 billion doses of vaccines, including 7 vaccines, but with the exception of Pfizer vaccines, the rest have not been approved for use in the EU.

List of panic buying of new crown vaccines in various countries [organized according to public information]
In the United States, which has pre-purchased 1.21 billion doses of vaccines, as early as May 2020, the United States obtained the largest booking rights for the vaccine by investing in multiple vaccine research and development parties, and purchased 6 vaccines in six months.

Since two vaccine candidates (namely Pfizer and Moderna) are the first to complete Phase III clinical trials, the United States has been able to guarantee at least 400 million doses of vaccine supply. According to statistics from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as of the 23rd local time, more than 9.4 million vaccines have been distributed across the United States, and 1 million of them have received their first shots.

In order to further consolidate the supply of vaccines, US President Trump signed a decree according to which “the priority of vaccination will be given to American citizens before being shipped to other countries.”

“Although this is not unreasonable from the perspective of a single country, it will cause serious inequality in global vaccine distribution.” The Duke University Global Health Innovation Center, which continues to track global vaccine supply and demand, commented.

According to reporter statistics, as of press time, 15 high-income countries and 9 low- and middle-income countries have only 1.14 billion doses and 1.78 billion doses of vaccines, respectively. Together, they are only comparable to those in the United Kingdom, the United States, Europe, and Canada. The total order quantity is comparable.

In order to avoid becoming a weaker party in the fight against seedlings, middle-income countries have also resorted to every possible means.

For example, India has the world’s largest vaccine manufacturer, the Serological Institute of India, and about 65% of the world’s children have received at least one dose of the vaccine made by this institute. With strong manufacturing capabilities, India can obtain a vaccine for itself by signing a production agreement with a new crown vaccine research and development company.

At present, India has pre-purchased as many as 1.6 billion doses, which is currently the world’s “most competitive” country.

But for more low- and middle-income poor countries, they lack the financial and manufacturing capacity and other bargaining chips, they will inevitably fall into a disadvantaged position or even be excluded.

“This will be a tragedy for the entire world, not just for low-income countries.” Melinda Gates said.

On December 18, 2020, Canadian and French officials stated that the two countries are working to develop a mechanism to encourage rich countries to donate or exchange excess new crown vaccines to other countries and economies. Both countries have not disclosed specific details.

Previously, the European Commission also stated that the vaccine will be distributed in proportion to the population of member states, and the remaining part will be donated or sold to other countries.

According to reporters’ estimates, the total amount of vaccines shared by the three parties will reach 970 million doses, which can be used by nearly 500 million people.

“Vaccines are a public product and have ethical considerations. Wealthy countries will also take this factor into consideration and come up with excess vaccines to support countries without vaccines,” said Gong Wenfeng, senior strategy officer of the Gates Foundation Beijing Representative Office.

Economic level distribution of subscribed countries 【According to public information】
Grabbing ≠ being able to hit, demand exceeds demand and restricts seedling effectiveness

With many orders and tight schedules, whether the supply of the new crown vaccine can keep up will also determine the battle.

Production capacity is the threshold for vaccine supply, but at present, it is difficult for global vaccine production capacity to increase rapidly.

The Global Health Innovation Center of Duke University once predicted the existing vaccine procurement and production data, and found that before 2023-2024, it will not be possible to produce a new crown vaccine for the global population.

It can be seen that the world may face a long-term situation where the supply of new crown vaccines exceeds demand.

If you focus on the research and development side of popular vaccines, you can also clearly see the huge gap between production and ordering.

For example, the new crown vaccine jointly developed by AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford has been subscribed by at least 24 countries or economies around the world, with a total of 274,000 doses, and is currently the most sought-after vaccine.

Among them, the United States, India, the European Union and the Global Covid-19 Vaccine Implementation Plan (COVAX) have each ordered 300-500 million doses. However, as of press time, the vaccine has not yet been approved for use in any country. Unable to start supply.

Even more difficult is that, according to the Financial Times, the British Vaccine Working Group admitted that due to production delays, the vaccine will only be able to supply 4 million doses to the UK in 2020, which is far below the original target of 30 million doses in September.

The popular Pfizer vaccine was not spared either.

At present, Pfizer’s global order for vaccines has exceeded 800 million doses, and more than half of the orders come from the European Union, Japan, the United States and China. All countries have orders for more than 100 million doses.

However, according to the Wall Street Journal, Pfizer has cut its new crown vaccine production target this year to 50 million doses, which means that the company’s previously announced 100 million doses are taking longer than expected to expand the raw material supply chain and the clinical trial results are later. The agent production target was directly cut in half.

Order status of several major vaccines [organized according to public information]
According to the Washington Post, citing sources familiar with the matter, Pfizer has informed the U.S. government that the company cannot provide more doses of the new crown vaccine to the U.S. before the end of June to July next year because other countries have joined the vaccine panic buying war.

However, in a reply to “Phoenix Weekly”, Pfizer said that the company’s production network with BioNTech could provide 1.3 billion doses of vaccines worldwide by the end of 2021.

Pfizer said that once the vaccine is approved for use in the ordering countries, it will be supplied through “a very strict procedure” in accordance with the requirements of the agreement.

Previously, Pfizer had stated that half of the 50 million vaccine doses produced in 2020 will be sold to the United States. According to reports, according to the order agreement between the United States and Pfizer, Pfizer will provide at least 70 million doses of vaccine to the United States by June 30, 2021, and complete the delivery of the remaining 130 million doses by July 31 of that year.

As for how the vaccine will be distributed in each country and which groups will be given priority, Pfizer said that it should be determined by the health authorities of each country.

“But according to the Global Public Health Guidelines, we believe that first-line medical workers and essential workers (note: essential workers are practitioners in public transportation, post and telecommunications, banks, supermarkets, police, government departments and other industries closely related to public life), People who are immunocompromised, nursing homes and public safety officials should have priority.” Pfizer emphasized in its reply.

However, according to the medical media STAT, some wealthy and privileged Americans can jump in the queue by expanding the range of high-risk groups, prompting doctors to vaccinate themselves, and paying bribes to get the vaccine first. Prior to this, the practice of many American conference members jumping in line for vaccination was also questioned whether it was to prove the safety of the vaccine to the public or to protect themselves.

“(Behind the new crown vaccination) there is absolutely black trading.” STAT said.

In addition, there are many challenges after vaccine ordering and production.

Cha Daozong, a professor at the School of International Relations at Peking University, asked some vaccine companies and found that 40% of the cost of vaccine exports was incurred in cold chain, storage and other infrastructure investment and inoculation personnel capacity training and other labor costs.

The long-term tracking of vaccine safety and effectiveness, as well as the response and compensation plan for serious side effects or accidents, also need to be coordinated.

These conditions will also restrict the global supply of the new crown vaccine.

A fair plan for 2 billion vaccines

At present, the global new crown epidemic is still spreading rapidly. The development of vaccines as soon as possible and fair distribution will be the only way to contain the spread of the epidemic.

Michael Ryan, the head of WHO’s emergency planning, emphasized that ordering vaccines should not be viewed as a game of winners and losers, or a kind of nationalist competition. The world needs to stand in a team to complete the game.

“Someone reaching the finish line first does not necessarily enable others to get help. Unless everyone wins, no one can win this game.” Ryan said.

How to achieve a win-win situation, especially to prevent poor countries from falling behind in the fight against seedlings, COVAX provides a solution.

The mechanism is led by the Epidemic Prevention Innovation Alliance (CEPI), the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) and the WHO. Its goal is to accelerate the development and production of the new crown vaccine, while concentrating on the needs of various countries, and quantitatively bargaining with vaccine companies. Ensure that all participating countries have fair and reasonable access to vaccines to end the acute spread of the new crown epidemic.

Among them, CEPI mainly provides support for vaccine research and development, GAVI integrates purchase orders, coordinates pricing and production capacity arrangements with vaccine manufacturers, and WHO provides more policy guidance on vaccine safety supervision and distribution plans.

In addition, UNICEF will also participate in the distribution and vaccination of the new crown vaccine. On December 18, 2020, the organization stated that it will prepare to deliver 850 tons of new crown vaccine per month in 2021. Most vaccines can be delivered on existing commercial flights, and charter flights or other options will be considered when necessary.

According to the COVAX vaccination plan, vaccines will be allocated according to priority, with the highest priority being medical and health workers and other key position workers who account for about 3% of the total population, followed by the elderly and other high-risk groups, and finally ensuring that every participating country Get the vaccine needed to cover at least 20% of the population.

To accomplish this goal, COVAX needs at least 2 billion doses of vaccine before the end of 2021.

On December 18, 2020, the WHO stated that COVAX has obtained nearly 2 billion doses of the new crown vaccine supply agreement. If these vaccines can be approved for use, low-income participating countries are expected to start using the vaccine as early as the first half of 2021.

At present, 190 countries and economies around the world have confirmed to join the mechanism. Among them, 92 are low- and middle-income countries and some island countries with high incomes but small populations. The latter have no bargaining power in vaccine ordering and need to purchase vaccines through various aid funds.

The remaining 98 countries and economies, including China, are at the middle-to-high income level. All the costs of vaccine procurement and vaccination are paid by each country, but the vaccine procurement price may be lower.

“But the biggest problem may still be funding.” Zhang Li, director of the GAVI Strategic Innovation and New Investor Center, said that because many high- and middle-income countries have signed subscription agreements with vaccine manufacturers, and want to ensure that poor countries can obtain vaccines in time, COVAX also To continue to sign purchase agreements with enterprises, a large amount of capital guarantee is required.

According to estimates, the total amount of funds required to purchase and distribute 1 billion doses of the new crown vaccine for the aforementioned countries is as high as 7 billion US dollars.

“So far, US$2.4 billion has been raised, and there is a gap of about US$4.6 billion by the end of 2021.” Zhang Li said that if intermediate transportation, vaccination and other related costs are considered, the funding gap will be further widened.

Currently, only 10 candidate vaccines have been selected for the COVAX program. Except for the mRNA vaccine developed by Moderna that has been authorized for emergency use in the United States, the remaining 9 vaccines are still in different clinical trials.

It is worth noting that Pfizer, Sinopharm, Kexing and other major subscribers that have attracted much attention are not included in the plan. Although COVAX did not announce the reason for not being selected, it can still get a glimpse of the criteria for the selected vaccine.

Zhang Li said that for the selected vaccine, it is necessary to ensure timely disclosure of vaccine clinical data. For this purpose, GAVI has established an expert review team. In addition, it needs to pass WHO pre-certification or strict drug regulatory agency certification. Second, the price of vaccines must be guaranteed by non-self-paying countries.

“Price is not the most important standard, but safety, effectiveness and related certification are indispensable. There is no ambiguity at all.” Zhang Li said.

For example, domestic vaccines are often subject to regulatory restrictions and it is difficult to enter the market.

On November 9, 2020, in New York, USA, when a pedestrian walked past Pfizer’s global headquarters, the building glass reflected the new crown epidemic prevention information publicized on the street. On the same day, Pfizer announced on its official website that preliminary results showed that the new crown vaccine candidate developed in cooperation with BioNTech was more than 90% effective.
At present, China has not adopted a regulatory model of strict drug regulatory agency certification. Therefore, if domestic vaccines are to be purchased internationally, they must be pre-certified by the WHO.

According to Cha Daozong, among the 155 vaccines pre-certified by WHO, 4 are domestic vaccines, and another 5 vaccines are still in the submission stage.

“If China’s new crown vaccine can obtain the WHO pre-certification, it will be an important milestone for the internationalization of my country’s vaccine brand.” Cha Daozong said.

As for Pfizer’s vaccine, which has preempted the market in the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union, Pfizer told Phoenix Weekly that the company has expressed to COVAX its willingness to provide new crown vaccines to poor countries and is communicating with GAVI (on behalf of COVAX).

“We intend to provide a fair supply of vaccines to the global priority population identified by the WHO.” Pfizer said that the two sides have not yet determined the quantity and price of vaccine supply.

As for whether China’s domestic vaccines can enter the international market through this, Cha Daozong believes that domestic vaccines can be sold to the world through various channels, such as market procurement, which requires negotiation between buyers and sellers, or joining the COVAX plan to sell to poor countries at lower prices. Subsidy sales, or free assistance.

However, no matter what method is adopted, it needs to be formally approved for marketing by my country’s drug regulatory agency or pre-certified by WHO.

But he also believes that the vaccine market is essentially a region or a single country as the center, or developed countries as the center. Especially when a major epidemic is encountered, the vaccine supply and demand situation is a seller’s market, not a buyer’s market. Global vaccine sales High monopoly Among the five major pharmaceutical giants in developed countries, China’s vaccines are bound to face strong competition.

“But there will always be opportunities,” he said.

More contagious! Another mutant new coronavirus found in the UK

According to statistics from the Department of Health and Social Security of the United Kingdom, as of December 23, local time, 39,237 new cases of new coronary pneumonia were newly diagnosed in the United Kingdom within 24 hours, the highest number of new cases in a single day since the outbreak of new coronary pneumonia, with a total of 2,147,551 confirmed cases; new deaths 744 cases, the highest number of deaths in a single day since April 29.

Another mutant new coronavirus found in the UK

The level of epidemic prevention and control in many places is adjusted to the highest level

Following the confirmation of a mutated new coronavirus in the UK on the 14th of this month, the British government announced on the 23rd that it has discovered another mutated new coronavirus that is more infectious.

British Health Secretary Hancock: We have detected two cases of infection with another variant of the new coronavirus in the UK. These two cases have been in contact with confirmed cases from South Africa in the past few weeks. This new mutated new coronavirus is very worrying because it is more contagious and seems to be more mutated than the mutated new coronavirus previously discovered in the UK.

British Health Secretary Hancock said that the current British government has quarantined two cases of the new variant of the new coronavirus and their close contacts, and restricted travel from South Africa to the UK.

Hancock emphasized that the current third-level epidemic prevention and control has been unable to cope with the current epidemic situation. Therefore, from the 26th, the epidemic prevention and control in Sussex, Oxfordshire, Norfolk and Cambridgeshire will be implemented. The level is raised to the highest level, which is the fourth level.

Freight restrictions between Britain and France

British Retailers Association warns: Britain may face supply shortage

At present, many countries and regions have adopted measures such as restricting entry of people from the UK. Affected by this, vehicle congestion occurred at the British border crossing. On the 23rd local time, about 8,000 to 10,000 vehicles were stranded in the Port of Dover, England, and some drivers clashed with the police.

According to the latest agreement reached between Britain and France, starting from the morning of the 23rd, British truck drivers and some passengers will be allowed to enter France. All passengers entering France from the United Kingdom must present a certificate that the new coronavirus nucleic acid test is negative within 72 hours.

However, the stranded drivers said that they did not know where to go for testing, and no management personnel communicated with them on the matter.

On the 23rd local time, the British Retail Association warned that if the freight between Britain and France cannot return to normal as soon as possible, then the British fresh food, especially fruits and vegetables will soon face a shortage of supply.

Former Chief Scientific Advisor in the UK:

British government ignores scientific advice and fails to act in time

Regarding the spread of the epidemic, David King, the former chief scientific adviser of the British government, said in an interview with a headquarter reporter that if the British government can respond more quickly to the new crown virus, fully listen to the suggestions of the scientific team and take timely measures, the UK is currently facing The situation may be avoided.

David King, former chief scientific adviser to the British government: We learned very detailed information from China at the beginning of this year. The report published in The Lancet on January 23 contains all the information we need to decide whether to take urgent action. information. But in my opinion, I am afraid that the British government has not taken the necessary actions.

David King said that in response to the new crown pneumonia epidemic, he and other scientists established an independent emergency scientific advisory group to release relevant information to the government and the public in a timely manner. However, the British government has repeatedly ignored scientific advice and failed to take corresponding measures in time, leading to the current chaotic situation in the UK.

Suspected of ineffective measures British Prime Minister: I did the right thing

Faced with the out-of-control epidemic in the UK, British Prime Minister Johnson was questioned by reporters at a press conference a few days ago, believing that the measures promised by the government had not been achieved and had little effect. But Johnson insisted that he did it right.

British “Mirror” reporter: Mr. Prime Minister, since the beginning of the epidemic, you have always promised too much but you have not implemented it well. Previously, it was said that the trend was reversed in 12 weeks, but later it was said that the blockade was a disaster and that the cancellation of public holidays would be inhumane. Why are you always like this? Do you know that this will cause public questions and damage the public’s trust in you.

British Prime Minister Johnson: You have to imagine that in the real world, the country has been in lockdown for a long time, and children have not gone to school for a long time. It is really a disaster. It is important that we move the country as far as possible. I think I did it right.

Mutation novel Coronavirus infection increased by 40%-70% in UK

On 22 local time, WHO released information on novel Coronavirus reported in the UK. On 14 December, the United Kingdom reported to WHO that a new novel Coronavirus variant had been discovered through viral gene sequencing. Preliminary analysis showed that the variant was more likely to spread from person to person, with an estimated 40 to 70 percent increase in infectivity and 0.4 in the transmission index between 1.5 and 1.7. As of December 13, 1,108 cases of the mutated virus had been detected in the UK.
This follows an unexpected increase in COVID-19 cases in south-east England, which was identified in an epidemiological study and virological investigation earlier in December. During 5 October solstice and 13 December, the notification rate of new cases in 14 days more than quadrupled. Since the outbreak of the epidemic, routine sequencing of 5 to 10 per cent of novel Coronavirus cases has been started in the UK and 4 per cent of novel Coronavirus cases in the south-east of England. During 5 October solstice and 13 December, more than 50% of the strains in the south-east of England were of this variant. Retrospective studies found that the variant first appeared on 20 September in Kent, south-east England, with most cases under the age of 60.
Who recommends that further epidemiological and virological research be undertaken to understand changes in the infectivity and pathogenicity of the mutated virus. Who recommends that all countries, wherever possible, add routine sequencing of novel Coronavirus and share virus genetic sequence data, in particular to report whether the same mutated virus has been found. All countries need to assess local levels of virus transmission and take appropriate prevention and control measures.

Will the epidemic return this winter? Is COVID-19 vaccine necessary?

The joint prevention and control mechanism of The State Council held a press conference in Beijing on the afternoon of December 21. Leading officials and experts from the China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Health Commission (NHC) and the Development and Research Center for Medicine and Health Science and Technology attended the press conference to introduce the prevention and control of COVID-19 in winter and spring and the vaccination of key populations.

  1. Is the COVID-19 vaccine developed in China safe?
    How much of an effect?

Zheng Zhongwei, Head of the Vaccine R&d Task Force of the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of The State Council and director of the Development Research Center for Medicine and Health Science and Technology of the National Health Commission,

The safety and effectiveness of vaccines are of great concern, and the safety and effectiveness of vaccines are also two key quality indicators for evaluation of vaccines.
Generally speaking, the safety of the vaccine refers to whether there will be adverse reactions and serious adverse reactions in our vaccinated subjects after vaccination. If no serious adverse reactions occur, we generally consider the vaccine to be safe.

The phase I, II and III clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccine in China, as well as the nearly one million emergency vaccinations that have been carried out in accordance with the law and under the premise of voluntary and informed consent, fully demonstrate that COVID-19 vaccine in China is very safe, with some minor adverse reactions but no serious adverse reactions.

At the same time, in the course of emergency use, more than 60,000 vaccinators have been to high-risk areas outside China. So far, we have not received a single case of serious infection, which is another proof that our vaccine has a certain protective effect.

  1. Is COVID-19 vaccine really necessary?
    After dozen need not wear a mask again?

Wang Huaqing, Chief expert of immunization Program of China CDC:

Vaccination is very important.

On the one hand, almost all people have no immunity from irus from a novel Coronavirus, so they are susceptible to virus from a novel Coronavirus. Moreover, most of them will become ill after infection, and some will even develop into critical illness or death.
After vaccination, the vast majority of people gain immunity;
On the other hand, vaccination will set up an immune barrier in the population, and novel Coronavirus transmission can be blocked to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic.

However, before the establishment of the population immune barrier, even if some people have been vaccinated, people’s awareness of prevention and control measures should not be relaxed.
Therefore, masks should continue to be worn after vaccination, especially in crowded places such as public transport, as well as other protective measures such as hand hygiene, ventilation and social distancing.

  1. With the recent confirmed COVID-19 cases in many regions, will the epidemic return this winter?

Wu Zunyou, chief epidemiologist of the China CDC:

In the past nearly a year’s prevention and control practice, China has accumulated a set of effective methods for timely detection and timely control of the epidemic, and on this basis, China has further improved its prevention and control strategy.
Measures to prevent a resurgence of the epidemic this winter and next spring have been put in place, and The State Council has also sent a monitoring team to monitor and inspect the prevention and control measures in all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government.
These measures will ensure that the outbreak will not return this winter and next spring.

At present, the source of the virus in many sporadic cases in China has been basically ascertained. One is the associated case caused by people infected abroad, and the other is the object transmission caused by the contamination of foreign articles.

  1. According to the results of the current trial, what are the main adverse reactions of COVID-19 vaccine?
    If there is an adverse reaction, what should be done?

Wang Huaqing, Chief expert of immunization Program of China CDC:

Clinical research results show that COVID-19 vaccine is similar to other inactivated vaccines, and the general reaction is mainly manifested as local swelling and pain at the inoculation site. Due to individual differences, a small number of people may have fever, fatigue, nausea, headache, muscle pain, etc., which generally can recover spontaneously without treatment.
Severe abnormal reactions usually refer to life-threatening, disabling or disabling conditions that occur after inoculation and require on-site first aid and hospitalization.
According to the currently available data of clinical trials of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in China, no such severe abnormal reactions have occurred.

However, it should be emphasized that acute seere anaphylaxis and syncope generally occur within 30 minutes of vaccination, although the probability of occurrence is extremely low, but should be observed at the vaccination site for 30 minutes after vaccination.

There is also the possibility of coincidences after vaccination.
Coincidental reaction is when the inoculator happens to be in the incubation period or early stages of some other disease, and coincidentally at the time of inoculation, the disease also comes on.
So, it has nothing to do with vaccination, it has nothing to do with the quality of the vaccine, it’s not an adverse reaction.

  1. Will our prevention and control strategies be adjusted after the vaccination starts?

Wu Zunyou, chief epidemiologist of the China CDC:

Personal protective measures, such as wearing masks, maintaining social distance and washing hands frequently, are still the simplest and most effective measures to control the epidemic and prevent individual infection.

For individuals, it takes time from vaccination to protection;
For social groups, it also takes time to vaccinate enough people.
Therefore, to prevent the outbreak of COVID-19 this winter and next spring, we should not put all bets on vaccines. The existing prevention and control strategies and measures should still be adhered to.

  1. What is the international level of the COVID-19 vaccine developed in China?

Zheng Zhongwei, Head of the Vaccine R&d Task Force of the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of The State Council and director of the Development Research Center for Medicine and Health Science and Technology of the National Health Commission,

At present, 15 COVID-19 vaccines have entered the clinical trial stage in China, among which 5 vaccines have entered the phase III clinical trial, including 3 inactivated vaccines, 1 adenovirus vector vaccine and 1 recombinant protein vaccine. In terms of the number and technical route covered, China’s COVID-19 vaccine is in the first international group.
The inactivated vaccines of Sinopharmaceutical and Kexingzhongwei are the first vaccines in phase III clinical trials in the world.

However, due to the good control of COVID-19 in China, the country is no longer qualified to carry out phase III clinical trials.
Phase III clinical trials of vaccines in China have been carried out abroad, with complex coordination and high time cost. Moreover, China’s vaccine r&d enterprises have limited experience in internationalization.
In addition, China’s phase III clinical trial cooperation countries and regions are not the regions with the highest incidence of the epidemic in the world. Therefore, the speed of obtaining the cases needed for phase III clinical trial is not the fastest.

Vaccine development, whether first or fastest, should respect the law of science.
Recently, we have obtained the number of cases required for the mid-term analysis of phase III clinical trial, and are submitting relevant data to the State Food and Drug Administration in a rolling manner to promote the registration and marketing of COVID-19 vaccine in China.

7, double festival approaching, we travel frequently, in this process, the individual should pay attention to what?

Wu Zunyou, chief epidemiologist of the China CDC:

First, reduce the flow of people. During the New Year’s Day and the Spring Festival, we should make reasonable arrangements to reduce unnecessary trips and encourage people to return home during the Spring Festival travel rush.
People such as the elderly, people with chronic diseases and pregnant women are not recommended to travel.
If you plan to travel across regions, you should know the local epidemic situation and prevention and control policies in advance, and know whether there are any recent cases or outbreaks in the destination. It is recommended to postpone the travel in medium-high risk areas.
Be prepared with masks, hand sanitizers and other items for use on the road.

The second is to reduce travel risks.
Measures such as ventilation and disinfection should be strengthened in transportation stations and vehicles during festivals.
Passengers should abide by the order and orderly queuing, wear masks throughout the journey, do personal protection such as hand disinfection on the way, minimize the number of meals on the means of transportation, and properly keep the ticket for inquiry.
Also monitor your health during the trip.

Third, reduce the number of people.
During the festival, minimize gathering activities.
Enterprises and institutions shall control the number of people involved in gatherings and other activities. For activities involving more than 50 people, prevention and control plans shall be formulated and relevant prevention and control measures shall be strictly implemented.
Encourage family private gatherings and meals to be under 10 people, and take good personal protection.
Encourage families to open Windows for ventilation every day.

Fourth, strengthen the publicity and education of health science knowledge.
Local governments should step up publicity on prevention and control of COVID-19 and safe travel during festivals, guide the public to strengthen self-prevention and control, and advocate good hygiene habits such as wearing masks in crowd gathering and closed places, washing hands frequently, making chopsticks, eating separately, and paying attention to covering up when coughing or sneezing.

Five is found fever, dry cough, fatigue and other suspicious symptoms, to seek medical advice as soon as possible.