The new Zika virus has been found in Brazil

A new strain of Zika virus is circulating in Brazil and could trigger a new outbreak in the country, according to a report by the Osvaldo Cruz Foundation.
Public health experts in Brazil say the best strategy to prevent The Zika virus remains to fight mosquitoes at their source, as there is no effective treatment for the infection and related diseases it causes.

Zika is a flavivirus that is spread by mosquitoes. People infected with zika usually have fever, rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain or headache, but most do not have symptoms.
Zika virus infection can put people at risk for neurological complications, and infections during pregnancy can cause babies to be born with microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities.
The previously known Zika virus has two lineages – African and Asian.
Epidemiologists conducting genetic sequencing of the 2019 Zika virus in Brazil identified an African subtype of zika virus in Rio and Rio DE Janeiro, which is different from previous Zika virus strains circulating in Brazil.

Brazil has reported 3,692 cases of Zika virus infection so far this year, according to the latest report from the Brazilian Ministry of Health.
Larissa Costa, a researcher with the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, said it was not clear how harmful the newly discovered strain would be.
Since the vast majority of Brazilians do not carry antibodies against the new virus, the new Zika virus could cause a new outbreak.

Public health expert Leah Girardo says about 90 percent of mosquito breeding sites have home-made water storage equipment, mostly from poor communities.
At the same time, a lack of effective drainage systems has left roads in poor communities flooded and prone to mosquito breeding.
Therefore, the government and the public need to strengthen the elimination of mosquitoes in sewage treatment, soil drainage, water supply and storage.
Brazilian epidemiologists have also noted that timely public awareness of how to combat the zika virus is crucial.

Since the first zika outbreak in Brazil in 2015, the government has gained much experience and introduced a series of measures to curb the spread of the virus.
In Brazil, large-scale anti-mosquito campaigns have been carried out throughout the country to inform the public about preventive measures and raise public awareness of hygiene.
Brazil’s Ministry of Health has also established an expert group on zika virus response to promote research activities and the development of new technologies.

Disease control experts in Brazil say the health sector needs close epidemiological surveillance for the newly discovered Zika virus.
The public sector needs to invest more in poor communities with a package of solutions that includes improved health standards.
At the same time, timely release of epidemic information and the establishment of an early warning and information linkage system are also important for epidemic prevention and control.

There are so many types of hepatitis, but you only know how to prevent hepatitis B?

The incidence of liver disease is not low. After liver disease invades the body, it will cause various adverse symptoms. If no reasonable measures are taken to control the development of liver disease, it may affect the normal physiological function of the liver during the process of aggravating liver disease.

Many adverse reactions are relatively obvious. Therefore, there are some good ways to improve liver disease. In the process of treatment, you should first understand the type of disease. Many people have heard of hepatitis and think that there is only one type of hepatitis, which is known as hepatitis B. In fact, there are many types of hepatitis, which need to be understood. What are the common types of hepatitis?

  1. Toxic hepatitis

There are many types of hepatitis. For example, toxic hepatitis is a well-known type of hepatitis. Due to the damage of drugs, liver function will be impaired. In the case of non-standard medication, drugs will harm the liver and cause liver function to decline, which will lead to the production of toxic hepatitis.

If this happens, you should change the bad habit of using drugs randomly. In the process of using drugs, pay attention to reasonable methods and use the drugs safely after consulting your doctor to prevent the occurrence of toxic hepatitis caused by drug damage.

  1. Alcoholic hepatitis

Many people’s hepatitis is related to excessive alcohol intake. This type is called alcoholic hepatitis. After drinking alcohol for a long time, the liver cells are damaged due to alcohol damage and can not bear the harm caused by alcohol, which may cause alcoholic hepatitis. In the development process, it may also be accompanied by fatty liver.

Therefore, after the occurrence of hepatitis, you should understand whether it is related to excessive drinking, and promote health by changing bad habits. Only by staying away from alcohol can you prevent alcoholic hepatitis from affecting your health.

  1. Hepatitis A

Many people only know the disease of hepatitis B, but they do not know that there is hepatitis A. Hepatitis A is also a disease caused by virus invasion. It is highly infectious. During the development process, the liver is affected by the virus and its function is impaired. The body will have fever, nausea, nausea, jaundice, etc. This is caused by hepatitis A Impact. Therefore, we should actively prevent infections and prevent liver damage caused by virus invasion.

  1. Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is also one of them. During the development of hepatitis B, your health is threatened. If you do not pay attention to the treatment of the disease, the condition will continue to develop, and there may be cirrhosis, and finally it may cause liver cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to actively prevent hepatitis B in the correct way to prevent blood transmission, mother-to-child transmission or sexual transmission from causing other people to become sick. This is a type of active prevention.

  1. Hepatitis C

The incidence of hepatitis C is high. After hepatitis C invades the body, the body is damaged after being infected with the virus, and there may be signs of fatigue, lack of appetite, and pain in the liver area. A small number of patients have severe symptoms at the time of onset, and damage to liver cells can also cause jaundice, which is also one of the common types of hepatitis.

Novel Coronavirus may have something in common with HIV and novel cocktails could be a novel solution

Since the OUTBREAK of COVID-19, scientists around the world have been racing against the clock to study the new virus.
At the beginning of the pandemic, human recognition of COVID-19 was “a new respiratory disease”.
However, with increasing scientific research, it has been discovered that novel Coronavirus affects not only the lungs but also the kidneys, heart and circulatory system, and even the sense of smell and taste.

Now a new study has revealed once again that the novel Coronavirus has an even more serious impact on the human body.
According to the New York Times on June 26, doctors have discovered that novel Coronavirus bears a frightening resemblance to HIV — it can “short circuit” the body’s immune system, including the death of important immune cells called T cells in certain areas.

▲ A new study suggests that novel Coronavirus may “short circuit” the body’s immune system.

The findings suggest that a commonly used treatment for COVID-19 — suppressing the immune system — may help only a few patients with severe illness, but may harm many.
The study also provides clues as to why coVID-19 is significantly skewed in children.

[New Research]

Seriously ill patients have a range of immune system deficiencies

“Abnormal” death of T cells is of concern

According to Dr. John Waley, immunologist at the University of Pennsylvania, a growing number of studies have “novel Coronavirus very complex immune characteristics” and his lab has been working ona detailed study of the immune systems of coVID-19 patients.

In May, Dr. Waley and colleagues published a paper on bioRxiv, an online preprint platform, noting that “critically ill patients with COVID-19 have a range of immune system deficiencies, including the absence of some antiviral T cells in the body.”

In another study, published on the bioRxiv platform on May 20, researchers conducted clinical studies of 71 coVID-19 patients and found three patterns of immunodeficiency, in which T and B cells were inactive in about 30 percent of patients.

One of the more detailed studies, led by Immunologist Dr Adrian Haidt of King’s College London, is being reviewed and published as a preprint in Nature Medicine.
Dr Haidt and colleagues compared 63 coVID-19 patients at St Thomas’s Hospital in London with 55 healthy people, some of whom had novel Coronavirus infections recovered.

▲ St. Thomas’s Hospital, London, UK.

Dr Heidi and colleagues first put forward a hypothesis, namely COVID – 19 patients to will be coronavirus a profound immune response, so as to reveal why most people after infection almost no symptoms such as mild or no symptoms of infection, but those who the progression of the disease after infection, the immune system may be damaged because of overreaction, like patients with sepsis.
In another case, the team hypothesized that the patients’ immune systems might be “struggling” but did not respond adequately to novel Coronavirus.

In the actual study, the team found that one of the most significant aberrations in coVID-19 patients was a significant increase in levels of a molecule called IP-10, which delivers T cells to areas of the body where they are needed.
In general, IP-10 levels rise only briefly when T cells are allocated.
However, in coVID-19 patients, the IP-10 level caused by novel Coronavirus will rise and maintain an upward trend.

“This can produce chaotic signals in the body, and the body may send signals almost randomly to T cells, disrupting the immune response.”
“It’s like When Bolt hears the starting gun, he just runs,” Explained Dr Haidt.
If someone fired over and over again, how would he react?
He would stop, confused, disoriented.”

Dr Haidt went on to say that some T-cells were preparing to destroy the virus but appeared to have been destroyed and were behaving abnormally.
As a result, many t-cells in the body apparently die, depleting their reserves, especially in those over 40, whose thymus (the organ that makes new T-cells) becomes less efficient.

【 New possibilities 】

Reactivating the immune system may be the key to a cure

Haart could be an alternative to vaccines

The study also suggests that a common coVID-19 treatment, which suppresses the immune system of seriously ill patients, may not help cure most patients.
Novel Coronavirus is such a strong immune response that some patients develop severe symptoms due to a cytokine storm.

Normally, these overreactions can be suppressed by administering drugs that block interleukin-6, another tissue conductor of immune cells, but Dr. Haidy said the drugs had no obvious effect in most coVID-19 patients.
“Clearly, some patients have elevated IL-6 levels, so suppressing it may help,” he explains.
But the core goal should be to restore and revive the immune system, not suppress it.”

▲novel Coronavirus in some patients can cause the immune system to overcompensate, leading to a cytokine storm.
Photo by The New York Times

The new study may help answer another pressing question: why children are so underrepresented in COVID-19.
Dr Haidt thinks that children’s thymes are very active, which may keep them ahead of the virus, which can produce new T-cells faster than it can destroy them.
In contrast, in the elderly, the thymus gland often fails to function properly.

The new findings suggest that the HIV treatment model, a cocktail of antiviral drugs, may be a good option for people with mild or severe illness.

But some experts question whether antiviral treatment is still relevant if the main symptom of severe COVID-19 is an overreaction of the immune system.

In this connection, Dr. Haidt noted that if a novel Coronavirus directly causes the immune system to fail, using an antiviral drug makes sense and may even play a key role because it is important to prevent infection before the novel Coronavirus depletes the T cells and damages the rest of the immune system.

Even without a vaccine, CoVID-19 would be a manageable disease controlled by drugs that directly fight the virus, according to Dr. Haidt.
“I’m optimistic,” he says.
“It would be great to have a vaccine.
But given how challenging it is to vaccinate globally, it would be nice if we could rely on more than vaccines.”

The three-step formula for the perfect figure makes weight loss more reasonable

Reducing weight is a woman’s lifelong career, love the heart of beauty everyone has, but some people always feel not thin enough.
Body weight standard value for excellent girls, how much is your weight perfect?

In fact, everyone has a standard weight. It’s not that the thinner the body, the better it looks. Instead, it looks the best in its own standard weight range, which also represents relative health.

Have you worked out your standard weight?
Why is standard weight so important?

One is that standard weight is one measure of whether you are overweight or undernourished.
Always cannot too too also cannot too lack, understand oneself standard weight to be able to have a assurance to oneself probably nutrition data.

Second, you need to figure out your own standard weight before you lose weight, in order to plan out your own reasonable weight loss goals.
For example, if you are only 5 kg overweight, but want to lose 15 kg, that is unreasonable, and the extra 10 kg will be much more difficult to lose than the first 5 kg.
Because the extra 10 kilograms of weight loss to destroy your body function to achieve, called “reverse” weight loss, and the body against.
So you find that sometimes it’s not that you don’t lose weight, it’s that you’re already at your standard weight and your body “doesn’t allow” you to lose weight.

The question is, why do I look fat but not over my weight?
It starts with the percentage of muscle and fat you have.
The same weight is 1kg of fat and the volume is 4 times that of muscle. That is to say, other people weigh the same as you, but look thinner than you. That is because they have more muscle mass than you, so they look smaller than you.

Does this underweight but seemingly fat person need to lose weight?
The answer is yes!
But the way to lose weight is definitely different from those who are over the weight limit.
This type of diet can not diet, but increase protein intake, once the diet lack of protein will be more likely to gain weight, continue to really exceed the standard weight, and later eat anything easy to gain weight.

Girls’ Standard List
Having said all that, how do you calculate your standard weight?
The internationally accepted formula for calculating human weight and body proportion: standard weight =(height cm-100)x0.9(kg)

The following is a case study of girls.
Standard weight (female)=(height cm-100)x0.9(kg)-2.5(kg)

Normal weight: standard weight – 10%;

Excess weight: 10% greater than standard weight and 20% less than standard weight;

Mild obesity: 20% greater than standard weight and 30% less than standard weight;

Moderate obesity: 30% greater than standard weight and 50% less than standard weight;

Severe obesity: more than 50% over standard body weight.

Weight calculation formula
In addition to the standard weight, the most important thing for girls is the ratio of three measurements.
There are two body types, slim and plump. Which are you?
It’s not about looking good at your normal weight.
Still have to see 3 encircle scale, namely the place that should grow flesh has flesh, the place that should be thin does not grow flesh, before convex hind concave.

Here is the standard body weight comparison table for girls. Check it out and see if you meet it.
Methods for women’s standard measurements:

Chest circumference = height (cm) ×0.535

Waist circumference = height (cm) ×0.365

Hip circumference = height (cm) ×0.565

The actual index calculated as plus or minus 3cm belongs to the three measurements, if less than 5cm is slim, and if more than 5cm is full.
If the positive and negative range is more than 8 centimeters, it’s too thin and locally too fat.

Standard three girth calculation method for girls
Of course, to achieve the perfect body also needs to achieve the overall proportion of the label, specifically:

Bust: Measure bust by the upper part of bosom along axilla most plump place

It should be half the height.

Waist circumference: Under normal circumstances, measure the smallest part of the waist.
The waist

The circumference is 20 cm smaller than the circumference of the chest.

Hip circumference: The pubis in front of the body parallel to the largest part of the buttocks.
hip

The circumference is 4cm larger than the circumference of the chest.

Thigh circumference: In the uppermost value of thigh, gluteal fold line below.
big

Leg circumference is 10 cm smaller than waist circumference.

Crus circumference: in crus most plump place.
The calf is around the thigh

It’s 20 centimeters smaller.

Around the neck of the foot: The smallest part of the neck of the foot.
The neck of the foot surrounds the lower leg

Make it 10 centimeters smaller.

Perfect body proportions
You may be losing weight or planning to lose it, but your brother-in-law’s advice is based on scientific data.
Understand your own data to design a reasonable weight loss program, do not blindly follow.
Finally I wish everyone thin into a lightning!

Can you exercise when you have asthma?

In addition to medication, asthma needs to be treated with other tools such as environmental control and lifestyle regulation to improve symptoms and reduce the risk of attacks.
The GINA Guide 2020 encourages regular, moderate physical activity in asthmatics. Here are some common questions asthmatics ask about exercise.
01
Is exercise good for people with asthma?
The answer is yes.
Regular moderate physical activity in asthmatics has health benefits, including:
· Reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease
· Improves the quality of life
· It keeps you energized
· Improves immunity
· Maintain a normal weight
It should be noted that regular physical activity does not confer any particular benefit to lung function or asthma symptoms per se, but improvements in cardiopulmonary function may reduce the risk of developing dyspnea.
Meanwhile, obesity is considered a risk factor for asthma, and studies have shown that losing weight can help improve asthma symptoms.
Aerobic exercise and strength training on top of diet control is more effective at reducing weight and controlling asthma symptoms than diet control alone.
02
Does exercise cause or aggravate asthma?
Although exercise is beneficial to the health of asthmatics, exercise is also an important cause of asthma symptoms.
Because people during strenuous exercise tend to breathe in large amounts of relatively cold, dry air, which causes the bronchial constriction caused by exercise.
Up to 90% of asthmatics may experience exercise-induced bronchial constriction during intense exercise, which is the most common cause of asthma symptoms in adolescents.
Common symptoms of exercise-induced asthma include wheezing, abnormal shortness of breath, chest tightness or coughing, and one or more symptoms may occur.
Therefore, asthmatic patients should choose exercise programs suitable for their physical conditions, choose indoor environment with controllable conditions as far as possible, and avoid exercise in very cold or severely polluted environment, so as to reduce the occurrence of bronchial contraction.
Exercise is also an important cause of asthma symptoms in children.
Children with poor asthma control often refuse to play games or exercise to avoid asthma symptoms. Parents should encourage children to play games or exercise, which is important for their normal social and physical development.
Therefore, it is important for parents to carefully observe their young children’s daily activities, including their willingness to walk and play, to assess their potential asthma diagnosis.
If asthma symptoms develop during exercise, use a “quick-acting bronchodilator” (such as salbutamol) and the symptoms will immediately ease.
If there is no relief, seek medical attention for other possible causes of symptoms.
03
How to prevent exercise-induced asthma?
The best approach is to ensure that asthma is well controlled. Patients with asthma should use inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on a regular basis. When the right medication is used and prepared in advance, most asthmatics can take appropriate physical activity and many will not be restricted.
To prevent bronchoconstriction due to exercise, a good warm-up exercise may be performed prior to exercise, with inhaled salbutamol or budesonidoterol if necessary.
04
What sports are suitable for asthmatic patients?
There is not enough evidence to suggest which form of exercise is better for people with asthma.
Asthma sufferers can engage in low-intensity, rhythmic aerobic exercise such as walking, jogging, tai chi, swimming and cycling to exercise their breathing and heart function at different intensities.
For example, when you warm up by jogging, jog at an increased intensity for a few minutes, lower the intensity for a few minutes, and then increase it again.
Indoor swimming is also a good exercise because the temperature and humidity in the environment are controllable. Asthmatics can try aerobic exercise by increasing and decreasing their swimming speed. However, exposure to the disinfectants chlorine and trichloramine during swimming may also induce asthma.
It’s important to note that whatever you do, make sure to warm up first, which will reduce the chance of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.
What’s more, the most important thing is that patients are interested in the exercise they do and can stick to it!
05
How intense can exercise be?
The amount of exercise should not be too large at one time. It is recommended to do it gradually. The intensity of exercise should be based on feeling good after each exercise and should not be exhausted.
If asthma symptoms occur frequently during an intense exercise program, this may indicate insufficient medication use or that the patient’s asthma symptoms are not suitable for such intense exercise, and you need to talk to your doctor about adjusting your treatment or taking preventive measures.
Do you have to stop jogging if you often feel unwell?
Not necessarily!
Usually, just getting ready for jogging can improve: First, use bronchodilators like salbutamol about 15 minutes before you start.
Second, warm up properly before going all out for a jog.
06
Symptoms of asthma develop during exercise
What to do?
Asthmatics should make sure they always have bronchodilators with them and use them immediately if they develop symptoms of asthma during exercise.
If asthma symptoms occur frequently during exercise, seek medical attention and have your doctor choose a more appropriate medication or avoid a specific type of exercise.
07
When athletes take asthma medication
Can I take part in the competition?
Most commonly prescribed asthma medications are permitted in competitive sports.
In general, inhaled corticosteroids and some bronchodilators are permitted, but corticosteroid tablets, syrups, suppositories, or injections are prohibited.
Athletes with asthma need to consult a doctor or national sports association, especially in international competitions, to ensure that the drugs used do not violate doping regulations.
Athletes need to be certified by a doctor to use asthma medication under certain circumstances.
All in all, people with asthma need to find an exercise program that suits them and interests them, and stick to it for a long time.
Remember to warm up properly before exercise, and have bronchodilators handy!

How do viruses assemble in cells? Scientists reverse engineer a slow down version of rotavirus

Rotavirus is one of the main pathogens causing diarrhea in infants and young children. It mainly infects small intestinal epithelial cells, causing cell damage and diarrhea, causing the death of 130,000 infants and children under 5 years old every year.
It is the single leading cause of diarrhea in infants and young children, and nearly every child around the world has been infected with rotavirus at least once.

Viroplasms have been difficult to study because they usually form very quickly, but a chance observation led researchers at Baylor College of Medicine to discover new insights into viral plasmid formation.

The researchers created a mutated rotavirus that replicates unexpectedly much more slowly than the original virus, allowing them to observe the first step in virus assembly.

The findings, published in the Journal of Virology, open new possibilities for treating and preventing the viral disease and understanding how similar factories for other viruses work.

“Virulence formation is essential for successful rotavirus infection.
They quickly formed in infected cells, is composed of virus and cell protein, and interaction with lipid drops, but the details of how these ingredients are combined together are still unclear, “lead author Jeanette m. Criglar said, she is a former postdoctoral interns, now the department of molecular virology and microbiology baylor Mary laboratory scientist Dr Estes.

Lipid droplet is a complex and active multifunctional organelle, whose basic functions are mainly involved in lipid synthesis and storage. Lipid droplet related proteins are involved in a variety of lipid related biological processes, including cell signal transduction, lipid metabolism regulation, membrane transport, and the synthesis and secretion of inflammation-related proteins.

Many pathogens, including viruses, intracellular bacteria, and protists, target lipid droplets.
Pathogenic microorganisms can induce the increase of intracellular lipid droplets which in turn provide a platform for the proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms.

To shed new light on viral plasmid formation, Criglar and her colleagues studied NSP2, a viral protein essential for virus replication.
Without it, neither virulence nor new viruses can form.

Like all proteins, NSP2 is made up of amino acids that are strung together like beads on a necklace.
Bead’ 313 is serine.
And importantly, ser313 is phosphorylated — it has a phosphate group attached to it.

Protein phosphorylation is a mechanism by which cells regulate protein activity.
It works like a switch that activates or deactivates proteins.

Here, the role of NSP2 phosphorylation of serine 313 in virion formation was assessed.

Using a recently developed reverse genetics system, Criglar and her colleagues created a rotavirus with an NSP2 protein by converting serine to aspartic acid. The virus has a mutation of 313 amino acids, called a phosphate-like mutation.

The phosphoprotein name suggests that the mutant protein mimics the phosphorylated protein in the original rotavirus.

Reverse genetics starts with a protein, works backwards, makes a mutated gene, and then makes it part of a virus to study how the protein affects the behaviour of the virus.

“In laboratory experiments, our phospho-like mutant protein crystallizes faster than the original protein, not in days but in hours,” Criglar says.

“But surprisingly, compared to non-mutated rotaviruses, the phosphoviruses produce virions and replicate very slowly.”

“This is not what we expected.
We think the rotavirus with the mutant protein will also replicate faster.”

“We took advantage of the delay in viral plasmid formation to look at early events that are difficult to study.”

The first step in virality formation, the researchers found, was the binding of NSP2 to the lipid droplet, suggesting that NSP2 phosphorylated only at 313 can interact with the lipid droplet and not with other components of the virion.

Lipid droplets are an important component of viral virulence.
Rotavirus is known to trick infected cells into producing fat droplets, but how it does so is unclear.

New findings suggest that rotavirus may use phosphorylated NSP2 to trigger lipid droplet formation.

“It is very exciting to see that changing just one amino acid in the NSP2 protein affects the replication of the entire virus,” Criglar said.

“This phosphorous change changes the dynamics of virus replication without killing the virus.
We can use this mutated rotavirus to continue to study the sequence of events that lead to viral plasmid formation, including a long-standing question in cell biology about how lipid droplets form.”

Who applauds Oxford’s discovery that coVID-19 treatment with new World steroid hormones reduces severe death

The World Health Organization (WHO) on Tuesday (16 June) described the UK’s use of a basic steroid to treat critically ill patients with COVID-19 as a “life-saving scientific breakthrough”.
About a third of those with severe illness survive.

The Oxford study was funded by state and private donors, including the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

“This is good news and I congratulate the UK government, Oxford University and the many hospitals and patients in the UK who have contributed to this life-saving scientific breakthrough,” the WHO director-general said, according to AFP, the Associated Press and Reuters.

Researchers at Oxford University treated more than 2,000 people with severe COVID-19 with the steroid dexamethasone.

Dexamethasone was found to reduce death rates by 35 per cent in patients who had to be put on a ventilator.
Preliminary results have also shown that it can reduce the mortality rate of patients who need oxygen treatment without ventilator from 25% to 20%.

Peter Horby, professor of emerging infectious diseases at Oxford University’s Nuffield Department of Medicine, said: “Dexamethasone is the first drug to be shown to improve coVID-19 survival…
This is a very encouraging result.”

“Dexamethasone is cheap and ready to be used immediately to save lives around the world,” he said.
But he also stressed that the drug would not help with mild symptoms, and would only help patients hospitalized with the virus.

Health Secretary Matt Hancock said patients in the UK would begin receiving the drug immediately and thanked the Oxford scientists.

A new study shows that rising water mist can spread the virus by flushing a toilet that doesn’t fit the lid

In daily life, many people flush the toilet without the habit of closing the lid, little did they know that doing so gave the convenience of the spread of the virus.

A recent study by a team of scientists from the School of Electrical and Energy Power Engineering at Yangzhou University found that if the toilet is not flushed properly, the rising water mist can reach a height of 91 cm above the ground, potentially allowing people to breathe the virus in the mist.
The results were published June 16 in the journal Fluid Physics.

The team used a computer model to simulate the turbulent flow of water when the toilet seat is not covered, and showed that the virus can travel up to 91 centimetres from the ground.
When the toilet is flushed, water rushes into the toilet and hits the side, triggering turbulence and gas-liquid interactions such as the eye of a storm.

The diffusion of virions after flushing

The eye of a storm caused by intense turbulence during flushing

Because the virus particle size is so small, once flushed out of the toilet, it usually hangs in the air for more than a minute.
If you put the lid on the toilet when you flush it, you can avoid transmission.
“Whenever possible, people should keep the lid down when flushing the toilet, always clean the toilet seat and any other area that comes into contact with the body, and wash their hands after using the toilet.”
Wang Jixiang said.

According to the introduction, the “Micro-scale flow Heat transfer and Energy efficient Utilization Research Team” of Yangzhou University has been committed to the application research of micro-scale heat and mass transfer, energy efficient utilization and system optimization.

Take antihypertensive medicine every day, why still can appear hypertensive nephrosis?

At the outpatient clinic last month, 41-year-old Xiao Li, who was a buyer at a company, came to me. Xiao Li found that his blood pressure had risen for 3 years, but he was the first time to see a doctor.

3 years ago, when Xiao Li passed the pharmacy, he saw that it was measuring blood pressure for free, so he went in and measured his blood pressure once, and found that the blood pressure was actually 160/110mmHg. He buys medicine, or the sphygmomanometer is bad. Xiao Li, who has traveled for many years, thinks that it must be a routine…

However, this matter always left a shadow in my heart, and I remember it from time to time. So after a month, Xiao Li measured the blood pressure several times in different places, and took the colleagues’ electronic blood pressure to measure it again, and found that each time the blood pressure was still so high.

He was a little flustered now, because he had heard that high blood pressure could be dangerous, so he asked his friends around him what to do? Can diet or physical therapy lower blood pressure?

Many friends nearby thought the same, and advised him not to take medicine so young. Of course, there are a few friends who say they should take some medicine, but it is recommended not to take good antihypertensive medicine, otherwise there may be no medicine available in the future, which is bad, and you have to leave some room for yourself when you are young. #甫谣#

Xiao Li sounded very reasonable, yeah, he was still so young, in case there is no medicine available in the future, then it is sad.

After consulting a lot of people, he made up his mind. After get off work, he found a pharmacy and asked the clerk to take one of the cheapest antihypertensive drugs “captopril”. This medicine was recommended by a colleague.

After the medicine was bought back, Xiao Li found that the instructions stated that he should eat 2-3 times a day, but he thought about it, as the saying goes: “It is a drug that is three-point poisoning”, and he has just started to develop high blood pressure, which can be less Eat less, so he decided to take only one capsule a day to maintain a basic level of blood pressure.

After taking antihypertensive drugs, he felt his heart and felt that everything was all right: high blood pressure, antihypertensive drugs, blood pressure will definitely come down, don’t worry about it.

The buyer’s work is indeed very busy, and there are a lot of entertainment and drinking. Although I insist on taking a captopril one antihypertensive drug every day, I have rarely had time to take blood pressure in the past few years. Because I don’t feel uncomfortable and don’t care too much, I feel comfortable: I should be too tired, just take a break.

However, last week the company went to the hospital for physical examination, and when Xiao Li measured his blood pressure, he found that the blood pressure was higher: 176/120mmHg, and a large amount of proteinuria had appeared in the urine test. The electrocardiogram showed that the heart had also enlarged.

He was very depressed and puzzled: He was taking antihypertensive drugs every day, why can’t he control his blood pressure?

In fact, Xiao Li entered the misunderstanding from the beginning, there are six major errors:

  1. First, what we usually say about good antihypertensive drugs refers not to expensive drugs, but to long-acting antihypertensive drugs, which can lower blood pressure smoothly for 24 hours, and the side effects are relatively small, and at the same time on the heart, kidneys, etc. Target organs have a certain protective effect. In other words, you can kill two birds with one stone.

In fact, many long-acting antihypertensive drugs are also very cheap. Many imported antihypertensive drugs now have domestic generic drugs, and they are very cheap through the national platform. They will not increase the financial burden of patients.
Short-acting antihypertensive drugs, such as captopril, heartache, etc., cannot maintain blood pressure stable for 24 hours and are prone to blood pressure fluctuations, so they are rarely used clinically.

  1. Antihypertensive drugs are different from antibiotics and will not produce drug resistance. The so-called “take poor drugs at first, and then take good drugs later” has no reason and no scientific basis. Many people think that poor antihypertensive drugs are actually old drugs decades ago, and many of them are short-acting or have more side effects and are not routinely recommended.

Of course, if there is no other antihypertensive drug, it can be used, but it must be taken according to the instructions of the doctor. If possible, we still recommend the use of long-acting antihypertensive drugs with good side effects and protection of target organs.

  1. Isn’t blood pressure monitored after taking antihypertensive drugs? This is of course wrong.

We often encounter this situation in the clinic. Many patients find that blood pressure rises very worried, but after taking antihypertensive drugs, they immediately feel safe and no longer monitor blood pressure. In fact, people’s blood pressure often fluctuates at different times and in different environments. Taking medicine does not mean that it can be controlled and stabilized. Even if the blood pressure is stabilized by using medicine, there may be fluctuations, such as weather changes or cold, cold, etc. Other conditions may cause blood pressure fluctuations.

If blood pressure is not controlled at a normal level, the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular accidents (such as myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmia, etc.) remains high.

Xinlu Xingchen: Therefore, it is very important to monitor blood pressure after taking the medicine. We recommend family self-testing blood pressure, measuring and recording, and giving it to the doctor when visiting the doctor. The doctor can adjust the amount and type of antihypertensive drugs according to the blood pressure.
The following is the blood pressure record table I made, you can refer to it.

Horizontal version of detailed records ↓↓↓:

  1. Unauthorized reduction of the amount of medicine.

Captopril is a short-acting antihypertensive drug that needs to be taken more often. For Captopril, it takes 2 to 3 times a day to maintain a relatively stable blood pressure, and Xiao Li takes one capsule a day, the drug effect can not be maintained for 24 hours, in fact, it may cause blood pressure fluctuations more obvious, which is more harmful to the condition .

Many patients take the concept of “can eat less and eat less” when taking medicine. We often encounter patients who have been prescribed medicine for one month and can eat for three months or even half a year, which often leads to aggravation of the condition, which is difficult to control.

  1. Once high blood pressure is found, medication should not be taken without authorization. After Xiao Li found that his blood pressure was high, it was wrong to consult his friends around him to buy medicine. This was not right, so he could not treat his specific condition.

We suggest that after finding high blood pressure, you should go to the hospital for treatment, and after a standardized examination, select and adjust the medicine accurately according to the condition.

There are many kinds of antihypertensive drugs, but the indications and side effects of each drug are different. High blood pressure medication pays attention to individualized programs. Selecting drugs according to specific conditions can achieve small dosage, good effect, and reduction. The purpose of side effects.

  1. Hypertension is a lifestyle disease. In addition to standardized antihypertensive medications, lifestyle adjustments also play an important role in antihypertensive treatments. According to research, developing good living habits can lower blood pressure by more than 10mmHg, such as quitting smoking, limiting alcohol, exercising more, low-salt, low-fat, high-fiber diet…

Xinlu Xingchen: It is a pity that although Xiao Li discovered an increase in blood pressure 3 years ago, due to the fact that the blood pressure has not been well controlled, the result has been hypertensive heart disease and hypertensive nephropathy. At this time, it is necessary to choose drugs more carefully. We usually need to choose drugs that can inhibit ventricular remodeling and protect kidney function.

For example, puli or sartans can also be used in combination with dipine drugs. For cases of fast heart rate or combined with angina pectoris, heart failure, etc., you can also consider using beta blockers… while for other Risk factors (hyperlipidemia, diabetes, etc.) also need to be intervened.
Standardized medication treatment and regular follow-up inspections can greatly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular accidents. Don’t take it lightly. In addition to taking medicine, hypertension is also important for monitoring.

Typical doping has been widely used by athletes

What are peptide hormones?

Erythropoietin (EPO) and its analogues, growth hormone (hGH) and its analogues, exogenous drugs (Qomatropin peptide drugs) and endogenous hormone (the body’s natural generated) difference is small, the characteristics of drug metabolism in human body short time, have no accurate and reliable detection method for a long time, widely abused by athletes, is also a hot research focus in the struggle the anti-doping drugs, EPO and hGH is a peptide hormone.

Erythrotropin and its Analogue (EPO) Marion, “World’s fastest woman”, Sydney Olympic Gold and bronze medalist.
Jones, who used EPO, hGH and THG, became the first person in history to be jailed for doping.
Other athletes and groups have been found to have used EPO: seven-time Tour DE France winner Neil Armstrong of the United States; Russian cyclist Petro; and German triathlete Nina Dobrev.
Clapford, 2000 Olympic Women’s triathlon champion McMahon of Switzerland, 400m world champion Gromi Young of USA (banned for life), Juventus Football Club of Italy (1994-1998), etc.

The Chinese team, Winter Games champion Wang Fei, the National Games men’s 10,000m champion Tian Mengxu, China’s race walker Qin Aihua have all been down by the drug.

EPO is a kind of peptide hormone secreted by human kidney, which can increase the amount of bone marrow to generate red blood cells, improve the content of hemoglobin, and increase the oxygen carrying and supplying capacity of blood. It is a kind of medicine in clinical treatment of renal anemia.

EPO is favored by some sports events and athletes because it can significantly improve aerobic exercise time. It has obvious effects on endurance events such as cycling, triathlon, rowing, long-distance swimming, long-distance running and winter events. It is said that the maximum performance can be improved by 15%.
Another reason why EPO is favored by athletes is that the international EPO detection technology is not qualified, and athletes from various countries can basically use EPO freely. However, after 2000, the international EPO detection technology has been gradually improved, and the situation has changed somewhat.

The EPO has been blamed for the deaths of 24 cyclists over the past two decades, including eight in 2003, including former Tour DE France champion Pantani.
This is because EPO increases the number of red blood cells in the blood, making the blood viscous and slow blood flow, causing hypertension, causing tissue hypoxia, accelerating blood coagulation, and even leading to venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism or cerebral infarction, leading to death.

Growth hormone and its Analogues (hGH) hGH is a peptide hormone formed in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and produced most in sleep. Moreover, with the increase of age, the production of hGH decreases gradually.
HGH quickly enters the liver where it is converted into growth vector C, which regulates growth, immunity and metabolism.

HGH can promote growth and development, promote cell division and proliferation of bone, cartilage, muscle and other tissues, increase protein synthesis, and promote bone growth in childhood and adolescence. It is mainly used for the treatment of dwarfism in clinic.
It can also promote anabolism, muscle growth, strengthen the strength of tendons, so that people’s muscles strong, strength increase, to gain competitive advantage, which is why it is used as a stimulant.
Due to its anti-aging effect, hGH is also used in the field of beauty.

There are also huge health risks associated with using such drugs: acromegaly and deformity.
It damages the liver and bones.
There is a high risk of contracting fatal diseases, such as AIDS, and deaths from brain virus infection due to hGH use have been documented.
HGH can inhibit sugar consumption, resulting in hyperglycemia and urine sugar;
It can also reduce insulin sensitivity and cause glucose intolerance. According to foreign reports, 80% of those who overuse hGH suffer from diabetes and need insulin treatment.
Lead to menstrual disorders, decreased sexual desire and impotence.

Many athletes consider hGH to be “safe” because the test is lagging and no hGH positive has been detected so far.
Marion.
Jones, who was heavily fined for using hGH doping, “confessed” rather than was tested.
DavidHowman, director-general of the world anti-doping agency (WADA), has said: “we know people are taking hGH and they haven’t been punished for 20 years.”
Australian customs seized a large amount of hGH injection in the luggage of an Uzbek coach;
The Italian police also found hGH in the baggage of the Tour DE Italy.