Who and 37 countries call for global vaccine sharing

Thirty-seven countries and the world health organization (who) on Thursday called for vaccines, medicines and diagnostic tools to be made available to all people in response to a global novel coronavirus outbreak.

“Vaccines against novel coronavirus, testing, diagnosis, treatment and other important means must be universally available as a global public good,” costa rican President carlos alvarado said.

The initiative, first proposed in March, aims to provide a one-stop shop for scientific knowledge, data and intellectual property at a time when the epidemic is already severe.
Developing countries and some small countries fear that rich countries, which have invested heavily in the search for a vaccine and have many in the pipeline, will be pushed to the front of the queue if an alternative vaccine succeeds.

The who issued a “solidarity call for action”, asking other stakeholders to join the voluntary initiative.

“Who recognizes the important role that patents play in driving innovation, but this is a time when people must consider the primary objective,” who director-general tedros tedros told a news conference, according to the report.

China and the United States have taken the lead in the development of covid-19 vaccine

Japan’s mainichi shimbun reported on May 25 that according to the calculation of the world health organization, the world is advancing the research of 124 candidate covid-19 vaccines, of which 10 have entered clinical trials on human subjects, while the United States and China are in the lead in vaccine research and development.
The content of the article is compiled as follows:

Writing in the Wall Street journal, former U.S. food and drug administration (fda) commissioner Scott gottlieb stressed that countries that are the first to reach the finish line in the race to develop vaccines will be the first to regain their economic and global clout.
Gottlieb believes that countries that successfully develop vaccines will prioritize domestic vaccinations, and even if there is international cooperation in the vaccine supply system, it will be years before the world can get the vaccine it needs.

In the United States, modena is leading the way in developing candidate vaccines.
The U.S. drug administration on Tuesday named modena as a priority for review in an effort to make the vaccine practical.
In general, clinical trials are carried out in three phases to confirm safety and efficacy.
Modena has been approved to start phase ii trials of the candidate vaccine and will enter the final phase iii trial this summer.

The U.S. government has secured a $10 billion budget to support a program called operation warp speed, which will support manufacturing systems from clinical trials for promising domestic and foreign vaccine candidates.
US President Donald trump stressed at a press conference on Monday that the goal is to get the vaccine by the end of the year.

Five research groups in China are pushing forward with clinical trials of the vaccine.
A research group based at the Chinese academy of military sciences (cas) reported in the British medical journal the lancet on Tuesday that they conducted phase I clinical trials of the covid-19 vaccine, and the results showed that the vaccine was safe.
Gao fu, director of the Chinese center for disease control and prevention, said in an interview with Hong Kong media on Friday that a covid-19 vaccine that can be used in emergencies may be available before the end of the year.
In addition, China plans to issue 1 trillion yuan of special anti-epidemic bonds to support infectious disease countermeasures, including vaccine research and development.

Rivalry between the United States and China over trade issues has also cast a shadow over competition for vaccine development.
Hackers with ties to the Chinese government are trying to steal U.S. vaccine research data, the federal bureau of investigation (fbi) warned Chinese research institutions and companies on Monday.
China’s foreign ministry said on Tuesday that it is strongly dissatisfied with and opposed to the us’s smear.
The United States has carried out the largest cyber theft on record worldwide.

Even if vaccine development is successful, there is no guarantee that the supply system will be complete, because the ownership of equipment is limited to the world’s big pharmaceutical companies and so on.
The Oxford University research team, the first in Europe to enter clinical trials of the covid-19 vaccine, worked with astrazeneca, a British pharmaceutical company, and the United States pledged support of up to $1.2 billion to astrazeneca, which announced it would ensure 300 million doses of the vaccine.
The us side of the “occupation” trend strengthened.

On the other hand, the situation is worrying with regard to international cooperation to achieve equitable distribution.
The European Union and Japan have submitted a draft resolution to the who to limit the patent rights of research and development companies, with the aim of making covid-19 vaccines and therapeutic drugs available at lower prices in developing countries and elsewhere.
The draft resolution was adopted by the who general assembly on March 19.
But the United States has objected to patent-related provisions.

(the 2020-05-27 14:11:51)

[extended reading]

foreign media: Chen wei’s team made significant progress in vaccine

A novel coronavirus vaccine is safe and can induce a rapid immune response, a team of Chinese researchers said in a report published in the British medical journal the lancet on Monday.
German media said the development was unprecedented.

The clinical trial was conducted by a team led by academician Chen wei of the institute of biological engineering at the academy of military medicine, academy of military sciences.
The vaccine used in the trial is a recombinant novel coronavirus vaccine with an adenovirus vector.
The team recruited 108 healthy adult volunteers between the ages of 18 and 60 for the trial.
The volunteers were given different doses of the vaccine in different groups.

Within 28 days of vaccination, the vaccine was well tolerated in groups with different doses and did not cause serious adverse reactions, the report said.

The study showed that the vaccine triggered an immune response to a novel coronavirus, an unprecedented development, dpa reported on May 22.
Further experiments are needed to see if the reaction can also stop people from getting the virus.

“These results are an important milestone,” said researcher wei Chen.
A single dose of ad5-ncov was sufficient to produce virus-specific neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses within 14 days.

Still, Chen advised “caution” in interpreting the findings.
“While novel coronavirus vaccine development shows promise, we are still a long way from a vaccine that will work for everyone,” she said.

The main limitations of the trial include a small sample size, a short trial period and the lack of a randomized control group, so further trials are needed, the report said.

According to the lancet, the development of an effective vaccine is a long-term solution to covid-19 prevention and control. Currently, more than 100 novel coronavirus vaccines are being developed worldwide.

A volunteer doctor inoculated a novel coronavirus vaccine against an adenovirus vector in wuhan, China (file photo)

(the 2020-05-24 15:27:17)

A plan to test vaccines for 100,000 people in the United States has raised safety concerns

The United States plans to carry out large-scale trials involving more than 100,000 volunteers and five or six of the most promising vaccine candidates, aiming to provide a safe and effective novel coronavirus vaccine by the end of 2020, according to the project lead scientist quoted by British media on May 24.
But the practice has raised concerns.

Chicago, May 22 (Reuters) – the project will compress what would normally be a decade of vaccine development and testing into a few months, demonstrating the urgency of containing the current pandemic.
To that end, leading vaccine makers have agreed to share data and let competitors use their networks of clinical trials even if their alternative vaccines fail, the scientists said.

Vaccine candidates that show safety in small, early studies will be tested in large-scale trials involving 20, 000 to 30, 000 subjects, which are scheduled to begin in July, the report said.

Larry currie, a vaccine expert at the Fred hutchinson cancer research center in Seattle, helped design the trials.
Corey said the number of participants could be between 100,000 and 150,000.

“If no safety issues are found, the trial will continue,” said Francis Collins, director of the national institutes of health.
The vaccine initiative is part of a public-private partnership announced last month to accelerate covid-19 therapeutic interventions and vaccine development.

The vaccine is intended for use by healthy people and usually goes through a series of trials, starting with animal trials, the report said.
Human trials begin with small safety trials on healthy volunteers, followed by larger studies to find the right dose and early measurements of effectiveness.
The final stage is large-scale testing in tens of thousands of people.
Only then will vaccine developers commit to mass production.

During a covid-19 outbreak, many of these steps will overlap, especially in the middle and late stages of the trial, Collins and Corey said.

The practice is risky, the report said, because some safety issues may occur only in large-scale trials.
Americans are worried about the speed with which novel coronavirus vaccines are being developed, according to a Reuters/ipsos poll.
The U.S. government has allocated billions of dollars to help manufacturers develop vaccines that may never prove effective.

To get answers as soon as possible, the vaccine will be tested on health care workers and in communities where the virus is still circulating, the report said.
Washington, dc, which has yet to reach its peak, may be a testing ground.
Collins says the trials could also take place abroad, including in Africa, where the virus has just spread.

The us government reportedly plans to use its own network of trials to find potential volunteers, including health facilities of the department of veterans affairs, while drug makers will recruit through their clinical research networks.

(the 2020-05-24 14:45:00)

China accounted for half of the world’s eight vaccines in clinical trials

Beijing, May 22 (chinamil) — China and the United States are engaged in a strategic and defensive battle in the field of vaccine research and development, the nihon keizai shimbun said in an article published on May 20.
The article is edited as follows:

China and the United States have launched a fierce attack and defense war with an eye to the practical use of novel coronavirus vaccine.
Us biotech company modena said it had completed preliminary clinical trials of the vaccine and confirmed the antibody, and will begin large-scale clinical trials in July.
Several companies in China are also stepping up clinical trials of the vaccine, with the aim of putting it into practical use this fall.
In the context of real progress in vaccine development, the focus going forward will be on how to ensure mass production capacity.
A government-led scramble by the us to monopolise the capacity of French companies with mass production capacity has raised concerns.

Early data for the first covid-19 vaccine in clinical trials in the United States have shown positive results, modena announced Thursday.
The company will skip phase ii clinical trials on the effectiveness of the vaccine and proceed directly to phase iii clinical trials before commercial production begins in July.
This would significantly shorten the development cycle that would normally take one to two years to complete.

The United States is leading a national effort to develop a vaccine.
The U.S. agency for advanced biomedical research and development approved a $483 million grant for modena in April.

Even so, China is still the one ahead.
According to the world health organization, as of May 16, a total of eight covid-19 vaccines have entered clinical trials around the world, four of which are from China.
Phase ii clinical trials by Chinese biotechnology company sinovac, which began in April, will end in July.

However, this does not mean that any one company is capable of producing a covid-19 vaccine.
Modena’s vaccine is a messenger RNA vaccine that must have the technical ability to produce.
In addition, making novel coronavirus vaccines requires a lot of equipment such as virus culture and air conditioning, which can only be produced by pharmaceutical giants such as astrazeneca of the UK and Johnson & Johnson of the us.

The war on mass production has already begun.

(the 2020-05-22 11:00:23)

Scientists say they are ‘cautiously optimistic’ about rapid development of covid-19 vaccine

According to the us media on May 21, scientists are cautiously optimistic that a covid-19 vaccine can be developed quickly.
In a medical research project of almost unmatched ambition and scale, volunteers around the world are rolling up their sleeves and getting an experimental vaccine against the novel coronavirus just months after its discovery.

According to the New York times on May 20, companies such as innovio and Pfizer have begun early human trials of potential vaccines to see if they are safe.
Researchers at the university of Oxford believe they may have a vaccine ready for emergency use as soon as September.

Modena announced Monday local time the encouraging results of a vaccine safety trial involving eight volunteers.
While there are no public figures, the news alone sent hopes — and the company’s share price — soaring.

There is cautious optimism in laboratories around the world that a vaccine — perhaps more than one — will be ready sometime next year, the report said.
With many countries and governments eager to relax restrictions and restart their economies despite the risk of another outbreak, the race to develop and produce vaccines is more urgent than ever.

Scientists are exploring at least four ways to make a vaccine.
Time is so tight that they are combining trials to shorten a development process that would normally take years to complete.

“What people don’t realize is that it often takes years, sometimes decades, to develop a vaccine,” said Dr. Dan baruch, a virologist at beth Israel deaconess medical center in Boston.
“So trying to compress the entire vaccine development process into 12 to 18 months is really unheard of,” he said.

“If successful, it will be the fastest vaccine development program in history,” he said.

Even if scientists develop a vaccine that turns out to be safe and effective, obstacles remain.
With almost all humans susceptible to the virus, officials will have to figure out how to speed up mass production of a vaccine.

But signs of progress continue to emerge.
A prototype vaccine has protected monkeys from novel coronavirus, researchers reported Thursday.
The findings raise new hopes for an effective human vaccine.

Dr Nelson Michael, director of the infectious disease research centre at the walter reed army institute of research, said: “it seems to me that it is possible to develop a vaccine.”

“The source of the virus is mysterious”!

At first, the United States insisted that China was the “source” of the virus, and several other countries agreed with the judgment of the United States. Later, the who presented evidence to emphasize that the source of the virus was natural and that every country could be the “source of the epidemic”.
But now, the most appropriate reality, or a series of investigations launched against the United States, a variety of abnormal practices, all show that the United States is the scourge of the world’s “cancer”, from the various evidence inferred that the United States as early as last July, the virus has begun to spread, and three strong evidence.

A fort detrick, suddenly closed, the United States, is an unprecedented bizarre behavior, in less than a month after the closing, the United States appears extraordinary epidemic infectious virus, killed more than 10000 people, 2 months, deputy director of the cia’s participation in the United States, organized a global epidemic exercises, and began to COVID – 19 starts in the global epidemic “exercise”.
It can be seen that at that time, the United States knew that there would be an outbreak of covid-19 in the United States. There was a big cat, so people naturally connected fort detrick with novel coronavirus.

Second, Israel once reported that the United States knew last year that the virus would break out in China. This news was published by the well-known Israeli media, which has certain authority.
Why should the us have warned Israel last November that the virus was spreading in China?
Such certainty sounded suspiciously suspicious.
You know, the outbreak in China occurred between December and February, so why did the us get the news one month in advance?
No doubt, all these make the United States exposed, is also a recognition that the United States is the epidemic “scourge of the world” cancer.

  1. Combined with the wuhan military games in October, more than 300 American athletes came to China, probably the beginning of the spread of the virus.
    The truth is that the epidemic is a long-planned “conspiracy” by the United States to spread the epidemic to the rest of the world. However, something went wrong in the process, causing the United States to “play with fire and burn itself into flames”, leading to today’s uncontrollable situation.
    Otherwise, the United States could not have asked the who to investigate the source of the virus and become so nervous that it would have threatened to quit the who.

So far, there is a 70% chance that the United States is the “source” of the virus. It is responsible for the epidemic in the whole world. The truth about the epidemic that the United States has been hiding will not be able to be hidden, and everything will come to light.
Do you have any comment on this whole thing about porn?

Why novel coronavirus is more lethal in Europe and America than in Asia?

The novel coronavirus pandemic leaves many questions unanswered, one of which is why there are significantly fewer deaths in Asia than in Western Europe and North America.

Even when technical factors such as detection policies and counting methods are taken into account, significant differences in mortality rates around the world have attracted the attention of countless researchers trying to crack the virus code.
Medical experts quoted by the BBC said the same virus did not appear to have mutated significantly as a result of transmission, and the difference in death rates was surprising.
In addition to the rapid response and early initiation of social isolation measures in parts of Asia, scientists are also analyzing other factors, such as differences in genetic and immune response, different strains of the virus, and regional comparisons of obesity levels and overall health, the Washington post said.

Experience with

Over the past few months, novel coronavirus has demonstrated its innate infectivity and lethality around the world.
Scientists at chiba university in Japan mapped the virus’s path around the world, with wide variations from region to region.

So far, fewer than 5,000 people have died in China, or three deaths per million people, according to newsmax.
The ratio is about seven parts per million in Japan, six parts per million in Pakistan, five parts per million in South Korea and Indonesia, three parts per million in India and less than one part per million in Thailand.
By comparison, covid-19 kills about 100 people per million in Germany, about 180 in Canada, nearly 300 in the United States and more than 500 in the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain.

Why are the virus fatality rates so different from region to region?
Jeffrey Shaman, an epidemiologist at Columbia University in the us, was baffled. “our immune response pool and its vulnerabilities are almost the same,” he said.

Part of the reason for the high death toll in Europe and the us could be the initial failure to respond to a seemingly remote epidemic, according to the Washington post.
In contrast, in Asia, the experiences of SARS and MERS have enabled some countries to respond more quickly.
But Japan and India were slow to respond, and their relatively low death tolls confused many scientists.

Different strains?

A study by the medical team at the university of Cambridge showed differences between east Asia and Europe.
A team of scientists at the los alamos national laboratory also suggests that a more contagious virus has taken root in Europe and spread in the United States.
But other experts say the exact nature of the new strain of the virus remains unclear.

“It could have been an accident, with ‘superinfected’ people going to rock festivals and nightclubs and spreading the virus to most people;
But another possibility is that the strain becomes more easily transmissible.”
Jeremy Luban, a virologist at the university of Massachusetts medical school.
Peter Forster, a British geneticist, agrees that clinical data on how different viral strains interact with different populations is still too limited to explain the link to differences in mortality.

The immune system

Japanese immunologist and Nobel laureate yuke honshu told the Washington post that Asian and European ancestry showed significant differences in the haploid form of human leukocyte antigen, a gene that controls the immune system’s response to viruses.
That may help explain Asia’s lower death rates.

The university of chiba scientists believe that a range of genetic factors may influence the body’s response to the virus and that further research is warranted.

At the same time, a different immune response seems to be at work.
The Japanese immune system tends to react to novel coronaviruses, which have been circulating in east Asia for hundreds of years, said Tokyo university researcher tatsuhiko koda, citing a preliminary study.
The mystery of low death rates in east Asia can be explained by the presence of the immune system.

Other studies have suggested that BCG vaccination may offer some protection, since anti-tb vaccines may induce an immune-boosting response at the cellular level.
But researchers at fujita health university in Japan also point out that the record of BCG vaccination in Japan is similar to that in France, where mortality rates are very different.

“Another factor worth investigating is differences in the microbial community — the trillions of bacteria in the human gut that play a huge role in the immune response.”
Megan Murray, an epidemiologist at harvard medical school, says different regions have different diets, and their microbial communities vary widely.

Other reasons

Climate, demographics, lifestyle and obesity rates are also under scrutiny, but there are always some puzzling counterexamples to be found.

First, in places such as Cambodia, Vietnam and Singapore, hot and humid weather is seen as a potential plus.
Several studies have shown that heat and humidity can at least slow the spread of the virus.
But the steady stream of confirmed and fatal cases in some equatorial countries, including Ecuador and Brazil, has thrown that view into question.

Second, demographics also play a role in regional differences.
For example, Africa’s overall younger population may be more resistant than older communities in northern Italy.
But Japan has the world’s oldest population, and people are looking for different reasons to control the virus.

Many experts point out that good hygiene practices, such as wearing masks and avoiding handshakes, have helped slow the spread of the virus, and that the national health care system and the country’s emphasis on protecting the elderly may have reduced the death toll.

What’s more, obesity has also been studied.
Obesity rates in many Asian countries are much lower than in the west, and obesity is considered a high risk factor for severe illness and complications.
Obesity is just over 4 percent in Japan, less than 5 percent in South Korea, more than 20 percent in Western Europe and 36 percent in the United States, according to the world health organization.

So far, however, any epidemiological studies of the virus have been based on incomplete data.
As the Washington post points out, any conclusions could be overturned as new data emerge.
Experts cautioned that the novel coronavirus pandemic was still in its early stages and that it would take time to solve scientific puzzles.
No matter how different the death rates are around the world, there is no reason for each country to let its guard down.

Novel coronavirus vaccine, is there any hope of release by the end of the year?

According to WHO, more than 100 novel coronavirus vaccines are currently in development, led by the university of Oxford, Pfizer, Moderna Therapeutics, Inovio Pharmaceuticals and China’s CanSino Biologics.
These organizations or companies use different vaccine development techniques, but it is not known which one will be the most effective and the first to appear.

The us government has said the novel coronavirus vaccine will be available in January 2021, and trump has said in public that the vaccine will be vaccinated by the end of the year.
However, scientists and vaccine workers outside the government, while optimistic about the date, say it is a very challenging thing to do.

One expert, speaking on condition of anonymity, said a vaccine could be ready within 12 months, meaning all the steps would be perfect and “break a certain ‘scientific rule'”.

“We also need to make sure that the vaccine is safe and effective,” said Dr. Anthony fauci, a leading infectious disease expert.
He also estimates it will take 12 to 18 months for a coronavirus vaccine to be available.
Remember that the fastest vaccine ever, the mumps vaccine, took four years.

But the number of infections and deaths has risen (by 28 May, more than 5.8 million cases had been confirmed worldwide, with nearly 360,000 deaths;
More than 1.74 million cases have been confirmed in the United States, with more than 100,000 deaths.
Pharmaceutical companies are also ramping up production amid uncertainty about which vaccines will work.

Paul Offit, the co-inventor of a rotavirus vaccine, says it is not impossible.

Paul Goepfert, a vaccine expert at the university of Alabama, says if every step is perfect, it’s not impossible.

Experts say vaccination trials need to be conducted in hard-hit areas to determine the effectiveness of the vaccine before it can be administered.

Rinke Bos, chief scientist and immunologist at Johnson & Johnson, which is developing one of the new coronavirus vaccines, said it is difficult to set a time frame.

It is important to note that due to the severity of this outbreak, many vaccines have been developed out of the normal process, for example by skipping animal trials and entering humans.

Deutsche post is to carry out large-scale novel coronavirus testing on its employees

Board member tobias meyer said the company decided to take a precautionary approach by testing more than 10,000 employees with novel coronavirus tests, especially those working at larger locations.
The company has given priority to novel coronavirus testing of employees with covid-19 cases near their work locations. After novel coronavirus testing of about 1,000 employees from two package centers, more than 20 tested positive and most were asymptomatic infected.

Novel coronavirus tests positive for 18 employees at a nokia plant in India

The nokia plant in chennai, south India, was closed Thursday after 18 employees tested positive for novel coronavirus, local media reported.

PConline learned that on May 18, India entered the fourth round of national lockdown. The decision-making power of this round of lockdown was exercised by various states. Most states in India adopted semi-liberalization measures.Across India, the proportion of people returning to work is rising.At the same time, the number of new confirmed cases per day in India shows no trend of decreasing, which poses a huge challenge to the control of the epidemic in India.

Surveys show that more than four in 10 americans reject vaccines: trump’s recommendations are even less convincing

A new Reuters/ipsos poll released on Thursday found that fewer than two-thirds of americans were “very” or “somewhat” interested in getting the vaccine after its introduction.

About a quarter of respondents said they were not interested in getting vaccinated, and more than 40 percent said the vaccine could be more dangerous than the virus itself.

That’s a troubling number because medical experts say about 70 percent of the population needs to be vaccinated or immunized against a previous infection to prevent further spread of novel coronavirus.

The survey also found that 29 percent of respondents said they would be more interested in a vaccine if it were approved by the food and drug administration, but 36 percent said they would be less willing to get it if trump said it was safe.

How scientists think about the ins and outs of the new coronavirus

Clarifying the source and transmission route of the new coronavirus is essential for winning the global epidemic prevention and control battle, and is of great significance for preventing the recurrence of similar diseases. Since the outbreak of New Coronary Pneumonia, scientific research at home and abroad has carried out related research work such as virus tracing at an unprecedented speed, and has achieved periodic results and certain consensus, which has laid a scientific foundation for finding the source of New Corona Virus as soon as possible and doing targeted prevention and control work. basis. In the course of research, the scientific community, based on facts, stood in the perspective of scientific laws and refuted the fallacies of politicization, stigmatization, and ideology of the source of the virus.

“Virus tracing itself is a scientific issue”

Virus tracing is a serious scientific problem, but also a complex scientific problem. The purpose of tracing the source is to cut off the chain of virus transmission from the source, fight the epidemic and prevent the global epidemic of the epidemic, and prevent the virus from making a comeback. It is not to blame or “throw the pot.” At present, some people with ulterior motives in the world put aside the regularity of scientific research and human cognition, maliciously speculate on the source of the virus, and throw out the so-called “artificial theory”, “concealment theory”, “apology theory”, “compensation theory”, and give the virus The issue of traceability has been marked with a distinctive political and ideological mark, and even racist attacks have been seriously distorted and poisoned the scientific value and significance of virus traceability itself. Many scientists in the world have come forward to clarify the facts, tell the truth, and refute the fallacy.

Virus tracing is “significant for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.” The earliest discoverer of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Dr. Ali Mohammed Zaki, an Egyptian virologist, believes that human understanding of the virus is far from enough, and the most powerful weapon to fight back rumors is further scientific thinking and verification. Japanese virologist Nagasaki University Nagasaki said that virus tracing, finding intermediate hosts, and studying the transmission of viruses into the population are of great significance to completely cut off the spread of the virus. Richard Houghton, editor-in-chief of The Lancet, pointed out that we really need to understand the origin of this virus, know where it came from, understand its transmission process, and then reduce the risk of spreading to humans. Zhao Guoping, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a researcher at the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, said that virus tracing “is of great significance to the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Finding the source of the virus and understanding how the pathogen develops into a virus that causes human disease can only answer whether the virus will recur. That is, whether everyone is concerned about whether it will make a comeback. “

Tracing the origin of the virus is a very challenging scientific problem. Dr. Adriana Egi and Dr. Van Bucker of the International Association of Viral Historians said that tracking viral mutations requires sequencing all the genetic material of the virus, the genome, which needs to be extracted from thousands of patients through research The genetic material of the virus, from which to find historical clues of the outbreak. Dr. Zhao Yuqi, an academician of the American Academy of Microbiology and a virologist at the University of Maryland, pointed out that virus tracing research is a scientific problem with great uncertainty. Scientists need to go through the epidemiological survey, genomic analysis, host (intermediate host and natural host) screening and identification, field sampling, virus isolate homology research, and final bioinformatics analysis and certification to track the virus The source. Shi Yi, a researcher at the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, said that virus tracing itself is a scientific issue. Judging from the whole process of virus traceability scientific research, this is a scientific problem that requires a long time and requires in-depth research by scientists from various countries.

The research team of the University of London Institute of Genetics has analyzed data on more than 7,500 viral genomes from people infected with New Coronavirus worldwide, and found that New Coronavirus may have spread around the world by the end of 2019. Published by Xinhua News Agency Zhu Yu / Drawing

“The investigation of the source of the virus should be ‘science-centric’.” An editorial published in “Nature” magazine pointed out that many national leaders hope to listen to the scientific opinions of experts, and take action accordingly to respond to the new coronary pneumonia epidemic and save lives. Michael Ryan, executive director of the World Health Organization’s Health Emergency Program, said that the investigation of the source of the new coronavirus is very important to prevent the recurrence of the epidemic. The investigation of the source of the virus should be “science-centered” and let scientists lead. Zhong Nanshan, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and leader of the high-level expert group of the National Health and Health Commission, pointed out that the source of the new coronary pneumonia is a scientific problem, and it is irresponsible to draw conclusions at will without evidence. Shada Islam, director of the policy research department of the “Friends of Europe”, a well-known Brussels think tank, said: “Conspiracy theory is one of the worst things that the epidemic brings. The lesson we learned from the conspiracy theory about the epidemic is that we We must listen carefully to the opinions of public health experts who know how to deal with the raging of the virus and how to find the true source of the virus. “

“The place where the case was first reported is not necessarily the source of the virus”

From the perspective of epidemiological investigation, the earliest reported case is not necessarily the source of the virus. Historically, the place where the virus was first reported is often not the source. The so-called “Spanish flu” of the global pandemic at the end of World War I, although the first report in Spain, was actually spread throughout the United States, Europe and other places, and some studies have directed the source directly to the United States, Falcon, Kansas Military camp. The World Health Organization and “Nature” have repeatedly emphasized that the earliest reported cases are not necessarily the source of the virus. Although the New Coronary Pneumonia epidemic was first reported by Wuhan, China, there is no evidence that the source of the virus is also in Wuhan. Scientists said that the virus is the common enemy of all mankind, and some people in the world have accused China unreasonably of being the source of the spread of the New Coronary Pneumonia epidemic. It has no meaning and lacks scientific basis.

On January 26, 2020, Science magazine quoted Daniel Lucy, an infectious disease expert at Georgetown University, as saying that the Wuhan seafood market may not be the origin of the new coronavirus. Photo courtesy of People’s Network

“There are some cases in the South China seafood market, but they are not the source of the virus.” “Science” magazine published an article on January 26 that Wuhan seafood market in South China may not be the origin of the new coronavirus. On February 21st, researchers from the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden and other institutions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences published a paper comparing the genomic data of 93 virus samples from 12 countries on four continents with data from patients related to the South China Seafood Market, and found many derived viral genes The shape comes from the South China seafood market, which also confirms the view that the South China seafood market is not the origin of the virus. A research report published in the “World Health Organization Bulletin” on February 24 pointed out that the virus has three branch variants, and patients infected with the initial variant virus have never had any contact with the South China seafood market. In early March, “Nature Medicine” also published a paper to study the origin of the new coronavirus. Robert Garry, a professor at the Tulane University School of Medicine, one of the authors of the article, said that many people believe that the virus originated in a seafood market in Wuhan, China, which may be a misunderstanding. “Our analysis and some other analyses point to an earlier origin than that.” “There are some cases in the South China seafood market, but they are not the source of the virus.” The French “Liberation Daily” article pointed out: It should stop accusing China of being the source of the virus. Studies have shown that the virus strain that broke out in Wuhan is not the source of the virus, or that this virus strain is just one of many virus sources.

On May 3, 2020, the International Journal of Antibacterial Agents published a research paper written by the Seine-Saint-Denis Hospital Group in the northeastern suburb of Paris, France. The study pointed out that a case that was regarded as a flu patient at the end of December 2019 had new symptoms of coronary pneumonia. The patient had no history of Wuhan travel and contact. This shows that the new coronavirus has spread in France in late December 2019 and has no connection with China. Photo courtesy of People’s Network

“Viruses may appear first anywhere.” At present, more and more countries have found cases with no history of Chinese exposure and earlier onset. The medical journal International Journal of Antibacterial Agents published a paper titled “The New Coronavirus Has Been Spread in France at the End of December 2019”. The researchers checked 14 flu diseases from December 2, 2019 to January 16, 2020. The nasopharyngeal swab in the intensive care unit was tested for nucleic acid, and a man who came to the hospital on December 27, 2019 was tested positive. This case is not related to China, and there is no history of travel before the onset, which indicates that the new coronavirus has spread in France at the end of December 2019. Massimo Galli, director of the Institute of Biomedical Sciences at the Milano Sacco Hospital in Italy, said that the scientific research team he led has isolated the virus strains of patients with new coronary pneumonia in Italy and compared them with 52 new coronavirus sequences in China. It is found that the infected patient virus in Italy has no connection with China. It is a new coronavirus circulating in Italy. Dr. Ashish Jaha, director of the Global Health Institute at Harvard University, said that two residents of Santa Clara County, California, died of the new coronavirus in early and mid-February, and the death cases have not traveled or traveled. China, which means that as early as mid-January, or even earlier, the virus began to spread in the California community. Dr. Jaha believes that it is necessary for the United States to go back to the cases in January and even December 2019 to find out when the new coronavirus first appeared. Robert Redfield, director of the US Centers for Disease Control, publicly admitted in mid-March that “in the United States, some deceased” flu “may actually suffer from new coronary pneumonia.” Mayor Michael Melham of Belleville, New Jersey, said he had been infected with the new coronavirus in November 2019, and the test results also showed that he already has the new coronavirus antibody, which is the first case reported by the United States on January 20 this year. The confirmed cases of New Coronavirus are more than two months ahead of schedule. Cambridge University geneticist Peter Foster said that based on genetic data, Wuhan is not the origin of the new coronavirus. It is not surprising that cases were discovered earlier than in China. The first infection of the virus is 95% likely to occur between September 13 and December 7, 2019. As pointed out by Michael Ryan, the executive director of the World Health Organization ’s Health Emergency Program, the new coronavirus is a global challenge. The source is uncertain, and the virus may appear first in any place.

Those infected with the original virus type are “mainly located in the United States”. The Proceedings of the American Academy of Sciences published a paper co-authored by German and British research teams, analyzed 160 new coronavirus genome data collected from around the world from December 24, 2019 to March 4, 2020, and found 3 The main variants of SARS-CoV-2, namely type A, B and C, of ​​which type A is the original virus type. The study found that the samples infected with type A are mainly located in the United States and Australia, and 2/3 of the samples in the United States are infected with type A, and the main infections in China and East Asia are type B. The research team of the Institute of Genetics of University College London conducted a genetic analysis of the virus extracted from patients with new crown pneumonia in many countries around the world and found that the spread time of the new crown virus in Europe and the United States and other places is longer than the first case discovery time reported by each country (1 Months or February) weeks or even months in advance. William Harnack, associate professor of epidemiology of infectious diseases at Harvard University, believes that the new coronavirus outbreak in the United States in mid-March is more likely to come from the United States than from overseas. Christian Anderson, an expert in microbiology and immunology at the Scripps Research Institute in the United States, said: “The vast majority of confirmed cases are caused by domestic transmission. I always hear people accuse this of being someone else’s fault, which is not true, This is our own fault. ” On March 10, US netizens launched a petition on the White House petition website asking the US government to announce the real reason for closing the Fort Detrick Biological Laboratory to clarify whether the laboratory is a research unit for new coronavirus and whether there is a virus Leak problem.

“Against the fallacy and conspiracy theories about the origin of the new crown virus”

At present, the fallacy of the so-called “new crown virus originated from the Wuhan Laboratory” circulating on foreign media and social platforms is called conspiracy theory by international people of insight. 27 well-known international scientists in a statement in The Lancet emphasized that conspiracy theories are of no use except to create panic, rumors, prejudices, and damage the work of the world to fight the disease together.

“The new coronavirus is derived from the theory of the Chinese laboratory that is” ridiculous and absurd “.” French immunologist and head of the New Crown Outbreak Scientific Committee Jean-Francois Del Fresi made it clear that the hypothesis that the new crown virus originated in the laboratory is “a conspiracy view that does not belong to the real scientific category.” Peter Dasak, chairman of the Eco-Health Alliance, which has been working with the Wuhan Virus Research Institute for 15 years and specializes in the study of the origin of the pandemic, said that the theory of the new coronavirus originated from the Chinese laboratory is “ridiculous and absurd”, Wuhan virus research We do not yet have the virus that caused the epidemic. Lipkin, a professor at the Center for Infection and Immunity Research at Columbia University, known as the “virus hunter,” pointed out: “So far, all the evidence has directed the source of the virus to wild animals. Perhaps there is some kind of unknown livestock as an intermediate host, but this It was introduced from wild animals, and now it has been passed from person to person. There is no evidence to prove the alleged misconduct of the so-called Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. ”Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, member of the White House Outbreak Response Team Anthony Fodge said the virus that caused the new coronary pneumonia outbreak did not come from a Chinese laboratory. Gregory Koblenz, a professor of biosafety research at George Mason University in the United States, said that after the outbreak, the Wuhan Institute of Virology released several early new coronavirus genome sequence information, which allowed other countries to develop diagnostic tools without evidence. It shows that Wuhan Virus studies all behaviors that cover the source of the virus. Olivier Schwartz, director of the virus and immunity department of the Pasteur Institute in France, also said in an interview with French media that the new coronavirus is not produced in the laboratory, which can be seen from the virus’s genes. Chinese researchers The viral genome was sequenced and subsequently verified by many other laboratories including the Pasteur Institute. The US National Interest magazine published the title “No!” The “New Coronavirus is not a biochemical weapon from China” emphasizes that there is no evidence that the New Coronavirus is a product of the Chinese Virus Laboratory. Dennis Carroll, the former head of the New Threat Department of the United States Agency for International Development, has also worked with Chinese scientists studying new infectious diseases for many years. He believes that there is no evidence that Chinese researchers are developing a new pathogen.

On March 17, 2020, a research paper by five authoritative scientists in the United States, Britain and Australia was published in the journal Nature Medicine, proving that the new coronavirus cannot be created in the laboratory, and may be the nature of the virus against human or animal hosts. select.

“There is no possibility that the so-called laboratory leak of Wuhan Virus Research Institute”. Jona Mazet, an epidemiologist at the University of California, Davis, believes that the spread of the new coronavirus cannot be caused by a leak in the Wuhan laboratory, and lists the main reasons. First, the laboratory samples do not match the new coronavirus; The second is that the laboratory implements strict safety protocols; the third is that the new coronavirus is the latest virus outbreak in zoonotic diseases. James Duke, director of the Galveston National Laboratory in the United States, clearly stated: “The Wuhan laboratory is as strict as the laboratory in Europe and the United States.” Yuan Zhiming, president of the Wuhan Branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a researcher at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, said that the “malicious” accusation against the laboratory of the Wuhan Institute of Virus Research was “out of nothing” and contradicted all the existing evidence. Have the ability to design and create a new coronavirus. In addition, the new coronavirus genome does not show any signs of artificial transformation. ” Study all strict management systems and scientific research codes of conduct, “High-level biosafety laboratories have advanced protective facilities and strict measures, the purpose is to ensure the safety of laboratory personnel and the environment.” Daniel Anderson, a virologist at the Duke-National University of Singapore School of Medicine, said: I have worked in the laboratory of the Wuhan Institute of Virology at different times in the past two years, and I can personally prove that strict controls and Restraint measures. The staff of Wuhan Virus Research Institute is very capable and hardworking, is an excellent scientist and has an excellent track record. Gerald Koisch, deputy director of the National Institute of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Boston University, and professor of medicine and international hygiene, said: “As far as I know, the safety and security system and procedures of the Wuhan laboratory are the most advanced, and (Galveston National Laboratory in the United States) has helped train many researchers there, and there is collaboration between the two parties, I’m sure they are very professional. This makes the possibility of accidents very small. Will accidents happen? In my opinion, it will not. “Peter Dasak, chairman of the” Eco-Health Alliance “who specializes in the origin of the pandemic, made it clear that the so-called laboratory leak of the Wuhan Virus Research Institute is absolutely impossible.

What does a quantum computer do?Get the vaccine done in a few days

Novel coronavirus outbreaks are demonstrating that humans must quickly identify avirus and minimize its impact before it becomes an epidemic.Because around the world today, viruses are spreading faster, farther and more frequently than ever before.

Professor Noor Shaker, a biotechnology entrepreneur, believes that once a quantum computing breakthrough is made, the development of a new vaccine or drug could be completed in a matter of days.

If novel coronavirus has taught us anything, it is that while our ability to identify and treat pandemics has greatly improved since the outbreak of the Spanish flu in 1918, there is still much room for improvement.

In the past few decades, human beings have made great progress in improving the ability of rapid detection. In just 12 days, the novel coronavirus external “spike” protein was developed using new technology.In the 1980s, a similar structural analysis of HIV took four years.

Professor Noor Shaker, a biotechnology entrepreneur, highlights a major problem in the current drug development process: the high reliance on experience.

When a molecule is made, it needs to be tested, and its effects cannot be accurately predicted in advance.The testing process itself is long, tedious, tedious, and may not be able to predict future complications until the molecules are deployed on a large scale, significantly reducing the cost-benefit ratio in drug development.While ai/machine learning tools have been developed and deployed to optimize certain processes, their effectiveness at mission-critical tasks in the process is limited.

Ideally, a good way to reduce time and cost would be to move the expensive and time-inefficient research and development and testing that humans are currently doing to a computer simulation.

Today humans already have access to databases of molecules, and if humans had unlimited computing power, they could simply scan those databases and calculate whether each molecule could be used for novel coronavirus treatments or vaccines.We simply feed these molecules into a simulated environment and sift through the chemical space to find a solution to the problem.

If we stick to traditional computers, we will never achieve this goal.Why are quantum computers so much better at simulating molecules than conventional computers?

Electrons diffuse through a molecule in a strongly correlated fashion, and the properties of each electron depend heavily on the properties of its neighbors.These quantum correlations (or entanglements) are at the heart of quantum theory, making it tricky to simulate electrons with classical computers.

Novel coronavirus “outriggers” contain thousands of atoms, making it impossible for a conventional computer to cope.The size of the proteins makes them difficult to accurately model using classical simulation methods, even on today’s most powerful supercomputers.

Although chemists and pharmaceutical companies use supercomputers to model molecules (though not as large as proteins), they now use very crude molecular models that fail to capture the full details of the simulations, leading to huge errors in estimates.

It may take decades to build a quantum computer big enough to simulate molecules the size of proteins, but when such a computer comes along, it will mean a radical change in the way the pharmaceutical and chemical industries operate.

Decades later, with the right technology, humans could transfer the entire process to computer simulations, allowing them to produce results at an astonishing rate.By the time a new epidemic emerges, scientists can identify and develop a potential vaccine or drug within days.

Achieving all of these dreams will require a sustained investment in the development of quantum computing as a technology.

As professor Shohini Ghose put it in his 2018 Ted talk: “light bulbs didn’t come about because candles were getting better.The light bulb is a different technology based on a deeper scientific understanding.Today’s computer is a miracle of modern technology and will be improved with the progress of human beings.However, no traditional computer can solve the problem of drug development.It requires a new technology better suited to the task — quantum computing.”

Us media reports of government-concocted conspiracy theories about viruses bear a striking resemblance to history

Covid-19 has been diagnosed in more than 1.3 million people in the United States, and more than 80,000 people have died.For nearly two months, americans and medical workers struggled with novel coronavirus.Ironically, another tenacious “virus” of this time is the novel coronavirus conspiracy theory that originated in a laboratory.Although experts and scholars at home and abroad, the global media, and even the U.S. intelligence agencies to clarify the rumors for many times, with a scientific fact argumentation synthetic virus may be neither lab, also can’t be a laboratory accident, but the President of the United States, secretary of state, peng admire Mr Trump as a firm supporter of the use of the speech, still won’t change, and would continue to investigate.Us media have pointed out in recent days that the trump administration’s method of ramping up its arguments is familiar, with even former intelligence officials comparing it to the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

The Los Angeles times notes that rumors that the virus originated in a laboratory were debunked by experts as early as march

Experts responded to the rumors as early as march

The Los Angeles times notes that rumors that the virus originated in a laboratory were actually debunked as early as March 17.A joint study published in the journal nature medicine by biologists, infectious disease researchers and biosecurity experts makes it clear that “any suggestion that a virus originated in a laboratory is impossible”.Vanity fair also spoke with lead author Christian Anderson, a professor in the department of immunology and microbiology at Scripps research institute, about a new version of the recent rumor that the virus was accidentally leaked by researchers during a study.So far, Anderson said, the evidence supporting this theory is zero, and the chance of an accidental release in the lab is “one in a million.”

△ Forbes published a story about the evolution of the virus’s origins over several months

The government contradicts itself

U.S. secretary of state, peng admire Mr In early may has different media interview comments the contradiction, first in told ABC news, on May 3, “significant evidence” suggesting that the virus from the lab, but in just three days later, peng admire Mr Again said in an interview on CNN, “we don’t have an exact message”.But even so, pompeo insisted that his response was consistent and consistent with the position of senior U.S. military officials and intelligence agencies that the virus came from a laboratory.

However, Forbes noted that pompeo’s May 3 claim was explicitly denied by White House outbreak expert Anthony fauci and the pentagon over the next two days.Fauci told national geographic on May 4 that there was no evidence that the virus was “artificially or deliberately manipulated.”Army general mark milley, chairman of the joint chiefs of staff, said at a pentagon news conference May 5 that “we don’t know” whether the virus was circulating in a Chinese lab or in the market, but “there is a lot of evidence that it came from nature, not people.”

Pompeo acknowledged that the United States does not have conclusive evidence that the virus originated in a wuhan laboratory, CNN noted

All means are employed to obtain “evidence”

NPR notes that the administration’s disjointed rhetoric is similar to the tactics used during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.”Over the last three years, President trump has put a lot of pressure on the intelligence community to see the world through their own eyes,” former cia deputy director Michael morell told the radio station.

Former cia deputy director John McLaughlin told national public radio: “it reminds me of the argument between the cia and the bush administration over whether saddam had a relationship with al-qaeda.”McLaughlin said the office of then-vice President dick cheney kept up pressure on the cia to find evidence it did not have.”They kept asking questions of the intelligence agency, and we kept saying over and over again, you know, there was no evidence.”But after the intelligence community’s unequivocal assessment that Iraq had no ties to al-qaeda, Mr Cheney strongly supported that assertion.

Some scholars agree that the trump administration is repeating the tactics of 2003, and that interest drives distort intelligence conclusions, according to NPR.Jeffrey lewis, director of the east Asia nonproliferation program at the monterey school of international studies at middlehurst university, said the U.S. government is “creating these huge incentives within the intelligence community” to get the agency to tell the government what it wants to hear so “the government can do what it wants to do.”In the case of the Iraq war, U.S. agents obtained forged documents claiming that Iraq was trying to obtain uranium from the west African country of Niger, the report said.Lewis pointed out that the forgers were seeking financial gain, and if they could get it, “a lot of people around the world would be happy to falsify documents to show that the virus was leaked from a lab in wuhan,” and the U.S. government would likely use it to its advantage in a wide range of intelligence.

△ national public radio says a former top U.S. intelligence official has compared the origins of the virus to the 2003 war in Iraq